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Astronomy 113 Planetary Missions Tuesdays, Thursday 1 -4 pm Kendade Hall 305 Tom Burbine tburbine@mtholyoke PowerPoint Presentation
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Astronomy 113 Planetary Missions Tuesdays, Thursday 1 -4 pm Kendade Hall 305 Tom Burbine tburbine@mtholyoke.edu Focus of Class Learn about missions to asteroids and comets I will assume you currently know nothing about asteroids and meteorites Things you need to learn about Elements Minerals

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Astronomy 113Planetary MissionsTuesdays, Thursday 1 -4 pmKendade Hall 305Tom Burbinetburbine@mtholyoke.edu
focus of class
Focus of Class
  • Learn about missions to asteroids and comets
  • I will assume you currently know nothing about asteroids and meteorites
  • Things you need to learn about
    • Elements
    • Minerals
    • Spectroscopy
    • Spacecraft missions
website
Website
  • www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/tburbine/ASTR113
  • All presentations will be available on website immediately after class
  • So you don’t have to copy down everything I put up
grading
Grading
  • Problem Sets -33%
  • Quiz - 33% -
  • Class Presentation - 33%
  • Late Problem Sets will have 5 points deducted for every day they are late (unless this is your first class)
slide6
A 92.50 - 100
  • A- 89.50 – 92.49
  • B+ 87.50 – 89.49
  • B 82.50 – 87.49
  • B- 79.50 – 82.49
  • C+ 77.50 – 79.49
  • C 72.50 – 77.49
  • C- 69.50 – 72.49
  • D+ 67.50 – 69.49
  • D 59.50 – 67.49
  • ? below 59.49
slide7
Thursday Jan. 4 -
  • Tuesday Jan. 9 –
  • Thursday Jan. 11 -
  • Tuesday Jan. 16 – Quiz
  • Thursday Jan. 18 - Presentations
  • Tuesday Jan. 23 - Presentations
missions
Missions
  • Deep Impact – Comet Tempel 1
  • NEAR-Shoemaker – 253 Mathilde, 433 Eros
  • Dawn – 4 Vesta, 1 Ceres
  • Rosetta – Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, 2867 Steins, 21 Lutetia
  • Hayabusa – 25143 Itokawa
  • Stardust – 5535 Annefrank, Comet Wild-2
  • Galileo - 951 Gaspra, 243 Ida, Comet Shoemaker Levy 9
  • Giotto – Comet Halley
presentations
Presentations
  • 8 Teams of ~5-6 members
  • Each team will present details on a particular mission
  • Each team will take particular roles on the team and make ~8-10 minute presentations on particular parts of the mission
  • References should be included
need to setup teams
Need to Setup Teams
  • Principal Investigator
  • Project Manager
  • Science Payload Manager
  • Project Scientist
  • Deputy Project Scientist
principal investigator
Principal Investigator
  • Overall responsibility of all aspects of the mission
  • Student presentation
    • Planning of the mission
    • People involved
    • Goals of the mission
    • Details of mission
    • Landing Site (if a lander)
    • Will get 5 extra points for being in charge of the mission
project manager
Project Manager
  • In charge of overall development and operation
  • Reports directly to the Principal Investigator and NASA on the status of the mission
  • Student presentation
    • Budget
    • Building of spacecraft
    • Launching of spacecraft
    • Problems
science payload manager
Science Payload Manager
  • He leads the engineering implementation of the science instrumentation to optimize its reliability and performance within mass, power, and cost constraints.
  • Student presentation
    • Spacecraft Design
    • Instruments
    • What the instruments do
project scientist
Project Scientist
  • He serves as the Principal Investigator's "right hand man" in assuring that the spacecraft, mission design, and experiment plan answer all major science questions being investigated by the mission.
  • Student presentation
    • Science results
deputy project scientist
Deputy Project Scientist
  • Assists the Project Scientist
  • Student presentation
    • More science results
today
Today
  • 1-2 pm Introduction
  • 2-3 pm Meteorites
  • 3-4 pm Exercise
  • 5-10 minute break between classes
things you need to know because we will use the metric system
Things you need to know because we will use the metric system
  • one kilometer is 5/8 of a mile
  • one meter is approximately a yard or 3 feet
  • 1 kg is 2.2 pounds
  • We will use the metric system in this class
  • Do you all remember the Mars Climate Orbiter?
mars climate orbiter
Mars Climate Orbiter
  • Some data was calculated on the ground in pound-seconds and reported that way to the navigation team, who were expecting the data in metric units (newton-seconds).
  • This data was used to calculated the effects of using thrusters on the spacecraft trajectory
  • This caused the spacecraft to miss its intended 140 - 150 km altitude above Mars during orbit insertion, instead entering the martian atmosphere at about 57 km.
metric system
Metric System
  • Length:
  • 1 kilometer = 1,000 meters
  • 1 meter = 100 centimeters
  • 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters
metric system20
Metric System
  • Mass:
  • 1 kilogram = 1,000 grams
  • Time:
  • seconds
temperature
Temperature
  • Temperature – average kinetic energy of particles
  • Higher temperature – more kinetic energy, particles moving faster
  • For examples, air molecules around you are moving at ~500 m/s
temperature scales
Temperature scales
  • In America, we use Fahrenheit
  • Water freezes at 32 degrees F
  • Water boils at 212 degrees F
  • Everywhere else, they use Celsius
  • Water freezes at 0 degrees C
  • Water boils at 100 degrees C
in science
In Science
  • Temperature is measured in Kelvin
  • Zero Kelvin is absolute zero – nothing moves
  • Add 273.15 to the Celsius temperature to get the Kelvin temperature
  • 273.15 Kelvin = 0 degrees Celsius
scientific notation
Scientific Notation
  • 10000 = 104
  • 100000000 = 108
  • 10000000000 = 1010
  • 100000000000000000000 = 1020
  • 0.001 = 10-3
  • 0.0000001 = 10-7
how do you write numbers
How do you write numbers?
  • 31700000 = 3.17 x 107
  • 2770000 = 2.77 x 106
  • 0.00056 = 5.6 x 10-4
  • 0.0000078 = 7.8 x 10-6
how do you do multiply
How do you do multiply?
  • 106 x 108 = 10(6+8) = 1014
  • 10-5 x 103 = 10(-5+3) = 10-2
  • (3 x 104 ) x (4 x 105) = 12 x 10(4+5) = 12 x 109 = 1.2 x 1010
how do you divide
How do you divide?
  • 108/106 = 10(8-6) = 102
  • 10-6/10-4 = 10(-6-(-4)) = 10-2
  • (3 x 108)/(4 x 103) = ¾ x 10(8-3) = 0.75 x 105 = 7.5 x 104
atoms
Atoms
  • Atoms are made up of 3 types of particles
  • Protons – positive charge (+1)
  • Electrons – negative charge (-1)
  • Neutrons – neutral charge (no charge)
  • Protons and Neutrons are found in the nucleus
elements
Elements
  • Different elements have different numbers of protons
  • The properties of an atom are a function of the electrical charge of its nucleus
charge
Charge
  • If an atom has the same number of electrons and protons, it has a neutral charge
  • More electrons than protons, negatively charged
  • More protons than electrons, positive charged
  • Neutrons have neutral charge so don’t affect the charge of an atom
definitions
Definitions
  • Atomic Number – Number of protons
  • Atomic Mass – Number of protons and neutrons
  • U235 – atomic mass

92- atomic number

  • Isotopes – Same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
isotopes
Isotopes
  • Radioactive isotope - unstable atomic nucleus emit subatomic particles and/or photons
    • Decay is said to occur in the parent nucleus and produces a daughter nucleus.
  • Stable isotope – does not decay
mineral
Mineral
  • A naturally occurring, homogeneous inorganic solid substance having a definite chemical composition and characteristic crystal structure
halite nacl
Halite (NaCl)
  • Red atoms – Na, White atoms - Cl
olivine
Olivine
  • (Mg, Fe)2SiO4
  • Fayalite (Fa) - Fe2SiO4
  • Forsterite (Fo) - Mg2SiO4
  • Solid Solution Series
pyroxenes
Pyroxenes
  • XY(Si, Al)2O6
  • X can be Ca, Na, Fe+2, Mg, Zn, Mn, and Li
  • Y can be Cr, Al, Fe+3, Mg, Mn, Sc, Ti, V, and Fe+2

Augite Ferrosilite

important types
Important Types
  • Orthopyroxenes (Monoclinic)
    • Enstatite (Magnesium Silicate)
    • Ferrosilite (Iron Silicate)
    • Hypersthene (Magnesium Iron Silicate)
  • Clinopyroxenes (Orthorhombic)
    • Augite (Calcium Sodium Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate)
    • Diopside (Calcium Magnesium Silicate)
    • Hedenbergite (Calcium Iron Silicate)
    • Pigeonite (Calcium Magnesium Iron Silicate)
plagioclase
Plagioclase
  • Solid Solution
  • NaAlSi3O8 -Albite
  • CaAl2Si2O8 – Anorthite
  • KAlSi3O8 - Orthoclase
  • Usually see striations
slide46
FeNi
  • Kamacite – light – Ni-poor
  • Taenite – dark – Ni-rich
hydrated silicates
Hydrated Silicates
  • Serpentine - (Mg,Fe)3Si2O5(OH)4
  • (Fe,Mg)SiO3 + H2O  SiO2 + (Mg,Fe)3Si2O5(OH)4
light
Light
  • Light is a form of energy
light49
Light
  • These are all forms of light
    • Gamma rays
    • X-rays
    • Ultraviolet light
    • Visible light
    • Infrared light
    • Radio waves
light50
Light
  • Can act as a particle
  • Can also act as a wave
particle aspect
Particle aspect
  • Particles called photons stream from the Sun and can be blocked by your body
thomas young experiment
Thomas Young Experiment
  • http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/interference/doubleslit/
characteristics of waves
Characteristics of waves
  • velocity = wavelength x frequency
  • Wavelength = distance
  • Frequency = cycles per second = hertz
for light
For light
  • c = wavelength x frequency = 3 x 108 m/s
  • In vacuum, speed of light stays the same
  • So if wavelength goes up
  • Frequency does down
  • f = frequency
  • λ = wavelength
  • c = λ x f
calculations
Calculations
  • c = λ x f
  • So if the wavelength is 1 x 10-12 m
  • 3 x 108 m/s = 1 x 10-12 m * f
  • f = 3 x 108 m/s/1 x 10-12 m
  • f = 3 x 1020 s-1 = 3 x 1020 Hz
calculations57
Calculations
  • c = λ x f
  • So if the frequency is 1 x 1015 Hz
  • 3 x 108 m/s = λ * 1 x 1015 Hz
  • λ = 3 x 108 m/s/1 x 1015 Hz
  • λ = 3 x 10-7 m
energy of light
Energy of light
  • Energy is directly proportional to the frequency
  • E = h * f
  • h = Planck’s constant = 6.626 x 10-34 J·s
  • since f = c/λ
  • Energy is inversely proportional to the wavelength
  • E = hc/λ
slide59

Higher the frequency, Higher the energy of the photon

Higher the wavelength, Lower the energy of the photon

calculations60
Calculations
  • What is the energy of a radio wave with a frequency of 1 x 107 Hz?
  • E = h * f
  • h = Planck’s constant = 6.626 x 10-34 J·s
  • E = 6.626 x 10-34 J·s * 1 x 107
  • E = 6.626 x 10-27 J
calculations61
Calculations
  • What is the energy of a gamma ray photon with wavelength of 1 x 10-15 m
  • E = hc/λ
  • h = Planck’s constant = 6.626 x 10-34 J·s
  • E = 6.626 x 10-34 J·s * 3 x 108 m/s / 1 x 10-15 m
  • E = 1.99 x 10-10 J
so why are some types of radiation dangerous
So why are some types of radiation dangerous?
  • Higher the energy, the farther the photons can penetrate
  • So gamma and X-rays can pass much more easily into your the body
  • These high-energy photons can ionize atoms in cells
  • Ionization means removes electrons from an atom
when you measure an astronomical body
When you measure an astronomical body
  • You measure intensity
  • Intensity – amount of radiation
telescopes
Telescopes
  • Why do we use telescopes?
initially
Initially
  • Everybody observed with their eyes
why are telescopes better than your eyes
Why are Telescopes better than your eyes?
  • They can observe light in different wavelength regions (eyes can only see visible light)
  • They can collect more light than eyes
  • They can be built to compensate for the distorting effects of the atmosphere
why are reflecting telescopes used more in astronomy
Why are reflecting telescopes used more in astronomy?
  • Since light passes through the lens of a refracting telescope,
  • You need to make the lens from clear, high-quality glass with precisely shaped surfaces
it is
It is
  • It is easier to make a high-quality mirror than a lens
slide73
Also,
  • Large lenses are extremely heavy
size of a telescope
Size of a telescope
  • Diameter of its primary mirror or lens
  • Light collecting area is proportional to the diameter squared since
  • Collecting area =  r2
  • E.g., 8-meter telescope
to measure light
To measure light
  • In the past, they used photographic plates
  • Now they use CCDs (charge-coupled devices)
  • CCD are electronic detectors
  • CCDs are chips of silicons
slide77
CCDs
  • CCDs can collect 90% of photons that strike them
  • Photographic plates can only collect 10% of the photons
  • CCDs are split into squares called pixels
  • Data is in electronic form
atmosphere
Atmosphere
  • Atmosphere can absorb light
  • Atmosphere can scatter light
  • Atmosphere can distort light (twinkling)