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Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin A Presentation Developed by Wisconsin Sea Grant Advisory Services October 2006 Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin Wisconsin has become host to several aquatic species that never existed here naturally Some Atlantic Ocean species came in through the Welland Canal:

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Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin

A Presentation Developed

by

Wisconsin Sea Grant Advisory Services

October 2006

aquatic exotics in wisconsin
Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin
  • Wisconsin has become host to several aquatic species that never existed here naturally
  • Some Atlantic Ocean species came in through the Welland Canal:
    • Lampreys, 1930’s
    • Alewife, 1949
    • White perch, 1989
    • Three-spine stickleback 1991
aquatic exotics in wisconsin3
Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin
  • Some were intentionally introduced:
    • Chinook and Coho salmon 1963
    • Rainbow trout 1963
    • Brown trout 1960’s
    • Carp in 1880’s
aquatic exotics in wisconsin4
Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin
  • Some escaped from lakes, ponds or as bait:
    • Smelt
    • Goldfish
    • Grass Carp
    • Rusty Crayfish
    • Purple Loosestrife
aquatic exotics in wisconsin5
Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin
  • Some recent invaders came in the ballast water of sea-going ships:
    • Ruffe in 1986
    • Zebra Mussels in 1988
    • Spiny water flea in 1990
    • Round goby in 1995
aquatic exotics in wisconsin6
Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin
  • Invasive species traits:
    • High reproductive rate
    • Mature quickly
    • Eat various types of food
    • Tolerate poor water quality
    • Easily adapt to new habitats
aquatic exotics in wisconsin7
Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin
  • Native species traits:
    • Have narrow food preferences
    • Require certain spawning habitat
    • Intolerant of poor water quality
aquatic exotics in wisconsin8
Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin
  • A Quick look at six recent invaders:
    • Zebra mussels
    • Round goby
    • Ruffe
    • Purple loosestrife
    • Eurasian milfoil
    • Spiny water fleas
slide9

Zebra Mussel

Max. size ~ 2’’

* Introduced via ballast water from Europe

* First found in Lake St. Claire (MI) in 1988

* Eats plankton, filters up to 1 liter of water per day

* Produce 40,000 eggs/year

* Densities up to 700,000 per sq. meter = 43,000 on a piece of notebook paper

* Spread easily via planktonic larvae and adults stuck on weeds and boats

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Veliger

Post Veliger

Egg

3-5 Days

Microscopic

Can be felt

Can be seen

Adult

Juvenile

4-5 Years

Byssal Threads

Zebra Mussel Life Cycle

Planktonic up to 1 month

Settle and attach to substrate

Wisconsin Sea Grant Advisory Services

zebra mussels 2008
Zebra Mussels 2008

(26 counties, 101 lakes)

slide14

?

Wisconsin Lakes With Zebra Mussels

82

Why the big jump in 2006?

Better monitoring and additional infestations

slide15

Ruffe

3-4’’ Long

Max. 10’’

S. Zienert

First found in 1986 in Lake Superior

Introduced via ballast water from Southern Europe

Affects perch, whitefish and minnows

Eats fish eggs, bottom-dwelling insects and worms

Now Present in Lakes Superior, Huron and Michigan

slide16

Round Goby

3-4’’ Long

Max. 10’’

Introduced via ballast water from Europe

Affects sculpins and other bottom-dwelling species

Eats fish eggs, bottom-dwelling insects and worms

Present in all the Great Lakes, Chicago River

slide17

Purple Loosestrife

4-Sided Stem

2 Million Seeds per Year

Displaces Native Vegetation

Destroys Habitat

  • Controlled by:

Physical Removal

Beetles

slide20

Eurasian Watermilfoil

  • - Displaces native vegetation- Clogs boating and swimming areas- Spread by boaters through fragmentation
  • Control:Northern milfoil beetleChemical
eurasian milfoil
Eurasian Milfoil

Present in:62 counties > 475 waters

rusty crayfish
Rusty Crayfish
  • Native to southern U.S.
  • Introduced with bait
  • Aggressive
  • Destroys vegetation as they feed
  • Displaces native crayfish
  • Present in many Wisconsin lakes
  • Often spread as bait
rusty crayfish24
Rusty Crayfish

Documented

Suspected

slide25

Spiny Water Flea - ‘BC’ & ‘CP’

Bythotrephescederstroemi

& Cercopagis pengoi

5mm Long

Max. 1/3’’

Long spines make them hard for fish to eat

Foul fishing lines and nets (look fuzzy or gooey)

Introduced via ballast water from Europe

Present in all the Great Lakes and Gile Flowage in WI

slide26

Preventing The Spread

Drain bilge water

Dispose of live bait

Clean off weeds

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Call: Wisconsin DNR

or

Wisconsin Sea Grant

If You Catch An Aquatic Exotic

KEEP It:

Put it in a plastic bag or foil

FREEZE It:

Put it in a freezer or ice chest

REPORT It:

aquatic exotics in wisconsin28
Aquatic Exotics In Wisconsin
  • How Can You Help?
    • Learn To Identify Them
    • Report If You Catch One
    • Know Their Effects on the Ecosystem
    • Prevent Their Spread
    • Teach Others
for more information
For More Information
  • Visit the Sea Grant Nonindigenous Species Sites:
  • www.sgnis.org
  • www.seagrant.wisc.edu
  • Or Call:
    • Wisconsin Sea Grant
      • (920) 683-4697
    • Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
      • (608) 266-9270