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APA National Conference American Institute of Certified Planners. AICP Exam Prep. Verónica Rosales, AICP Professional Development Officer, State of Texas Director of Community Development, Sunland Park, NM April 22, 2006. www.planning.org. www.txplanning.org. Overview. Ethics History

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apa national conference american institute of certified planners

APA National ConferenceAmerican Institute of Certified Planners

AICP Exam Prep

Verónica Rosales, AICP

Professional Development Officer, State of Texas

Director of Community Development, Sunland Park, NM

April 22, 2006

www.planning.org

www.txplanning.org

overview
Overview
  • Ethics
  • History
  • Plan Implementation
  • Sample Questions
key responsibilities

Ethics

Key Responsibilities
  • Consider the public interest and long-term consequences
  • Provide adequate, timely, clear, accurate information
  • Do not mislead, misstate, plagiarize, or otherwise conceal the truth
  • Do not discriminate
  • Do provide opportunities for participation
  • Avoid all real and perceived conflicts of interest

Key Point: ethical planning isn’t always easy

code of ethics professional conduct

Ethics

Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct

Professional planners subscribe to the Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct

The Code is Divided into 3 Sections

  • Section A: Aspirational Statement; ideals & principles
  • Section B: Rules of Conduct
  • Section C: Procedural elements

Hand out: Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct

code of ethics professional conduct5

Ethics

Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct

Section A: Principles to Which We Aspire

1. Our Overall Responsibility to the Public

2. Our Responsibility to Our Clients and Employers

3. Our Responsibility to Our Profession and Colleagues

Key Point: Section A.2.c) We shall avoid a conflict of interest or even the appearance of a conflict of interest in accepting assignments from clients or employers

code of ethics professional conduct6

Ethics

Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct

Section B: Our Rules of Conduct (samples)

1. We shall not deliberately or with reckless indifference fail to provide adequate, timely, clear and accurate information on planning issues

5. We shall not, as public officials or employers, accept from anyone other than our public employer any compensation, commission, rebate or other advantage that may be perceived as related to our public office or employment

code of ethics professional conduct7

Ethics

Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct

Section C: Our Code Procedures

Describes (1) the way that one may obtain either a formal or informal advisory ethic ruling, and (2) detail how a charge of misconduct can be filed, and how charges are investigated prosecuted and adjudicated

Key Point: Section A.2.c) We shall avoid a conflict of interest or even the appearance of a conflict of interest in accepting assignments from clients or employers

case studies

Ethics

Case Studies
  • Environmental Justice issues
  • Social Justice issues
  • Gender and Disability issues
resources
Resources

Ethics

http://www.planning.org/ethics/conduct.html

Barret, Carol D. Everyday Ethics for Practicing Planners. Offers planners a way to recognize the ethical conflicts that arise, analyze them and apply relevant sections of the AICP Code of Ethics.

history

Ethics

History
  • Appreciate the historical context of planning as a field of study and as a profession
  • Be familiar with important ideas and movements and with key people, places and events (e.g. Advocacy planning)
  • Comprehend inter-relationships between social, economic and political forces that have shaped planning themes (e.g. Urban Renewal)
  • Distinguish milestone legal cases that have shaped the practice of planning (e.g. Takings)
key people
Key People

History

  • Pierre L'Enfant: Radial design of nation’s capital
  • Frederick Law Olmsted: Park design of Central Park; Planned Communities in Illinois
  • Daniel Burham: Plan of Chicago; City Beautiful Movement; “Make no Little Plans”
  • Rachel Carson: Silent Spring (effect of pesticides on environment)
  • Joel Garreau: Edge Cities concept (suburban cities gaining on older core cities)
key people12
Key People

History

  • Ebenezer Howard: Garden City concept (Garden Cities of to-morrow)
  • Paul Davidoff, Saul Alinsky, Sheri Arnstein: Advocacy Planning, 1960s-70s
  • Le Courbousier: architecture and planning
  • Jackie Onassis: Grand Central Station and Historic preservation
  • John Muir: Sierra Club and the environmental movement
  • Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tenements of New York (sociological factors affecting urban settlements; race; poverty issues)
key places or events
Key Places or Events

History

  • Publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson
  • Publication of The Life and Death of Great American Cities by Jane Jacobs
  • Colombian Exposition of 1893
  • Housing Act of 1954
  • Columbia, Maryland
  • Design with Nature by Ian McHarg
  • Migration to northern industrial cities by African-Americans from the south
key places or events14
Key Places or Events

History

  • Cincinnati Plan, 1925
  • Vieux Carre Commission of New Orleans
  • Federal Highway Act
  • Los Angeles County Regional Planning Commission, 1921
  • Standard State Zoning Enabling Act
  • Urban Renewal
  • Civil Rights Act, 1964
  • San Francisco Zoning Ordinance, 1867
key legal decisions
Key Legal Decisions

History

  • Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty, 1926
  • Golden V. Planning Board of Ramapo, 1972
  • Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council, 1992
  • Dolan v. Citv of’Tigard, 1994
  • Hadacheck v. Sebastian, 1915
  • Jenad v. Village of Scarsdale, 1966
  • Construction Indust. Assn. of Sonoma Co. v. City of Petaluma, 1975
  • Nollan v. California Coastal Commission, 1987
  • Southern Burlington County NAACP v. Township of Mount Laurel, 1972
resources16
Resources

History

http://www.planning.org/pathways/default.htm

CPC Study Manual, get from your chapters

Scott, Mel. American City Planning since 1890. 1995. The standard text on American city planning history through 1969.

Mumford, Lewis. The City in History. 1961. Sweeping, masterful historical analysis of city development all over the world. Describes why cities came about and what their continuing function is.

Faludi, Andreas, ed. A Reader in Planning Theory. 1973. Essays on the full complement of 20th century planning theory, such as rational planning, advocacy planning, and incrementalism in planning.

Ian McHarg, Ian. Design with Nature. 1992. Pioneering work on environmental planning. Uses map overlays to identify land development constraints and shows how to graphically integrate environmental information.

Jacobs, Jane. Death and Life of Great American Cities.1961. Critique on planners and planning still relevant today.

plan implementation
Plan Implementation

Overview

  • Regulations
  • Legal principles
  • Growth management techniques
  • Budgets
  • Program evaluation
  • Communications
  • Intergovernmental relations
  • Program management
regulations
Regulations

Plan Implementation

  • Understand federal, state and local legal requirements for the program under consideration
    • CDBG program – HUD requirements
    • Annexation – state sets the guidelines
    • TIF Districts – state sets the requirements
    • Subdivisions – local requirements in line with federal and state law
  • Have good local codes in place for the program and be able to explain arcane legal requirements to all those that may be affected
legal principles
Legal Principles

Plan Implementation

  • These set the guidelines within the program can operate
  • Do not knowingly ignore or violate these principles
  • Consider what is legal and what is ethical
program structure example

Plan Implementation

Program Structure Example
  • Program: Protection of persons & Property
  • Sub-Categories
    • General Administration
    • Fire Safety
    • Emergency Reporting
    • Preventive Patrol & law enforcement

Source: CPC Study manual, Chapter12, p. `185

program structure example21

Plan Implementation

Program Structure Example
  • Element: requirements
    • General Administration
    • Technical Support
    • Records & Communications
    • Plans & Operation
    • Identification Services
    • Community Relations
    • Juvenile Investigation
    • Traffic Safety
budgets
Budgets

Plan Implementation

  • A budget is a priority setting document
  • Account for what the desired outcome is
  • Consider staffing considerations for a program
  • Be prepared to justify each and every item on a program budget
  • Get the best deal
  • Follow procurement processes
budgets23
Budgets

Plan Implementation

  • Capital Budgeting
  • Project Management
  • Management by Objective
  • Be prepared to justify each and every item on a program
  • Follow procurement processes
intergovernmental relations

Plan Implementation

Intergovernmental relations
  • Partnerships – Champions, Common vision/goals, shared resources
  • Communication with stakeholders is key
  • Listening actively matters
  • Presentation of program is important
  • Consider audience, proponents, potential opponents
  • Media pros and cons
program evaluation
Program Evaluation

Plan Implementation

1. Consider an Evaluation Strategy that includes:

  • Expected outcomes
  • Data collection on current conditions
  • Measurable objectives
  • Timelines

2. Plan to mitigate potential negative effects of program

potential impacts
Potential Impacts

Plan Implementation: Program Evaluation

For a new development project, consider:

  • Water
  • Sewer
  • Traffic, roads
  • Noise
  • Air quality
  • Schools
  • Public services
  • Society
  • Community finances
  • Local economy
communications
Communications

Plan Implementation

  • Communication with stakeholders is key
  • Listening actively matters
  • Presentation of program is important – spokesperson, fliers/newsletters, file keeping
  • Consider audience, proponents, potential opponents, random interested parties
  • Media: pros and cons
program management
Program Management

Plan Implementation

  • Steps: Initiate, Plan, Execute, Close
  • Elements: Communication, organize information, product delivery, enabling staff to do their jobs
  • Constraints: Time, resources, project scope
program management29
Program Management

Plan Implementation

Implementation general guidelines:

  • Maintain an implementation schedule and adhere to deadlines
  • Create and adhere to a reasonable budget
  • Acknowledge program constraints
    • Time
    • Money
    • Staffing – capability, availability
    • Operational – space, equipment
  • Develop Partnerships
sample questions ethics
Sample Questions: Ethics

Q: Who is the Ethics Officer as described in the AICP Code of Ethics and Professional conduct?

A: The Executive Director of the APA/AICP

B: The Professional Development Officer of each State Chapter

C: APA’s AICP & Professional Development Director

D: The President of the AICP Commission

E: None of the Above

ANSWER: A. The Executive Director of the APA/AICP See http://www.planning.org/ethics/conduct.html

Q: Which section of the Code of Ethics and Professional conduct contains rules of conduct for planning professionals?

A: Section C

B: Section A

C: Section B

D: Both Section A and B

E: None of the Above

ANSWER: C. Section B. See http://www.planning.org/ethics/conduct.html; AICP Code of Ethics

sample questions history
Sample Questions: History

Q: Which of the following is a landmark publication tying planning to the natural environment?

A: Silent Spring by Rachel Carson

B: Design with Nature by Ian McHarg

C: Design of Cities by Edmund Bacon

D: The Death and Life of Great American Cities by Jane Jacobs

E: The City in History by Lewis Munford

ANSWER: B. Design with Nature by Ian McHarg

DISCUSSION: