Air Transport in the 21 st Century. Strong evidence to show that our global system is dependent upon air travel Civil aviation began in 1920s with earlier precursor in Germany pre-WW I High costs restricted widespread use of air travel
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Consequence is each airline assumes dominance over a hub (red airline over the orange hub and blue airline over the light blue hub) and services are modified so the two hubs are connected to several spokes.
Both airlines tend to compete for flights between their hubs and may do so for specific spokes, if demand warrants it.
However, as network matures, it becomes increasingly difficult to compete at hubs as well as at spokes, mainly because of economies of agglomeration.