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3D4 Computer Aided Design

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  1. 3D4Computer Aided Design Prof. Francis Neelamkavil Dr. John Dingliana

  2. Computer Aided Design • Exam: • Section A (4 questions) FN • Section B (3 questions) JD • Answer at least two from each part • Coursework: • 20% of final mark (14% FN, 6% JD) • Assessed at weekly labs • Attempt all assignments • Pass both exam and coursework in order to pass the course

  3. 3D Computer Graphics John Dingliana Image Synthesis Group Computer Science http://isg.cs.tcd.ie/dingliaj/3d4ii

  4. Course Overview • 3D Graphics • The 3D Graphics Pipeline: • Modelling • Viewing • Projection • Rasterization • Introduction to OpenGL • Image Synthesis • Light and Shading in Computer Graphics • Ray tracing

  5. 3D4 part ii • Assessment • 3 Questions in the exam (answer at least 2) • 30% of Practical Mark • For More Information: John.Dingliana@cs.tcd.ie 3.18 Oriel House Computer Science Department ext. +3679 http://isg.cs.tcd.ie/dingliaj/3d4ii

  6. Recommended Texts • Computer Graphics - Using OpenGL (Second Edition) – F.S. Hill • Computer Graphics - C Version (Second Edition) - Donald Hearn, M. Pauline Baker

  7. What is Computer Graphics ?

  8. Computer Graphics • “Computer Graphics is concerned with producing images (or animations) using a computer.” rendering modeling DISPLAY WORLD MODEL

  9. Rendering

  10. Modeling And Rendering © Walt Disney and TSL

  11. Wireframe Model Skeletal Model Muscle Model © Walt Disney and TSL Hair Render and Touch up Skin

  12. Spacewars: first computer graphics game (MIT 1961) Whirlwind: early graphics using VectorScope (1951) first CAD system (IBM 1959) SketchPad: first interactive graphics (1961)

  13. Early texture-mapped image (Catmull 1974) First bump-mapped images (Blinn 1978) First ray traced image (Whitted 1980) First distributed ray traced image (Cook 1984)

  14. Westworld (1973) First production movie to feature computer graphics. Used in various graphics displays within the Westworld center.

  15. Star Wars (1977)

  16. Tron (1980) First time computer graphics were used for live action sequences.

  17. Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, genesis effect (1983) The Last Starfighter (15 minutes) (1982)

  18. Applications of Computer Graphics

  19. Movies Fully computer generated animated features

  20. Movies Special Effects… in Live Action Cinema

  21. Movies • “Traditional” Animated Features… • Some examples: • Automating Keyframing in many Disney-type animations • The flocking behaviour of the wilderbeest in Lion King • Non photorealistic rendering: 3D effects in Futurama

  22. Behind the scenes on Antz Production Number of frames in the movie 119,592 Number of times the movie was rendered during production 15 (approx.) Number of feet of approved animation produced in a week 107 ft. Total number of hours of rendering per week 275,000 hrs. Average size of the frame rendered 6 MB Total number of Silicon Graphics servers used for rendering 270 Number of desktop systems used in production 166 Total Number of processors used for rendering 700 Average amount of memory per processor 256 MB Time it would have taken to render this movie on 1 processor 54 yrs., 222 days, 15 mins., 36 secs. Amount of storage required for the movie 3.2 TB Amount of frames kept online at any given time 75000 frames Time to re-film out final cut beginning to end 41.5 days (997 hrs.)

  23. User Interfaces CAVE: Immersive and Interactive 3D enironement B205 Control Console (1960) 3D Studio MAX

  24. Layout and Design

  25. Scientific Visualization and Analysis

  26. Medicine and Virtual Surgery The Visible Human project

  27. Room Layout Design and Architectural Simulations

  28. ART AND DESIGN

  29. History and cultutal heritage

  30. CG Applications (1) • Art, Entertainment, Publishing • Movie Production, Animation and Special Effects • Computer Games • Browsing the web • Slide, Book and Magazine Design • Multimedia

  31. CG Applications (2) • Computer Graphics and Image Processing • Scientific Analysis and Visualization • Simulations • Computer Aided Design • Electrical Circuit Design • Architecture

  32. Related Disciplines Data Processing DATA Computer Vision Computer Graphics IMAGES Image Processing

  33. Interdisciplinary • Science • Physics: light, color, appearance, behaviour • Mathematics: Curves and Surfaces, Geometry and Perspective • Engineering • Hardware: graphics media and processors, input and output devices • Software: graphics libraries, window systems • Art, Perception and Esthetics • Color, Composition, Lighting, Realism

  34. Graphics and the Computer Engineer • Knowledge of the Interdisciplinary Background to Graphics Related Problems • Ability to Implement Computer Solutions based on interdisciplinary techniques in computer systems • Knowledge of existing hardware and software frameworks for Computer Graphics applications • Optimization! Realism/Fidelity vs Speed

  35. Subtopics • Modelling • 2D Graphics • 3D Graphics • Image Synthesis • Ray-tracing, Radiosity • Image Processing • Animation • Key Frame animation • Physically Based Simulation • Real-time Interactive Animation

  36. Image Synthesis Group Computer graphics research in Trinity College Graphics & perception Virtual Dublin Characters & Crowds Image Synthesis Adaptive Simulation Virtual Reality