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Transportation and Distribution in the New York Metropolitan Area. Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Dept. of Economics & Geography Hofstra University Hempstead, NY http://people.hofstra.edu/faculty/jean-paul_Rodrigue/. Outline. Basic historical considerations Transport context and profile

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Transportation and distribution in the new york metropolitan area l.jpg

Transportation and Distribution in the New York Metropolitan Area

Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue

Dept. of Economics & Geography

Hofstra University

Hempstead, NY

http://people.hofstra.edu/faculty/jean-paul_Rodrigue/


Outline l.jpg
Outline Area

  • Basic historical considerations

  • Transport context and profile

  • Main public transport agencies

  • Congestion

  • Challenges in freight distribution


Basic historical considerations l.jpg
Basic Historical Considerations Area

  • Initial location

    • Port site.

    • Hinterland access (Hudson).

  • Canal era

    • Erie Canal (1825) expanded the port’s hinterland.

    • By 1850, the dominant seaport of the Eastern Seaboard.

  • Rail

    • Emergence as a rail hub in the late 19th century.

    • Industrialization.

  • Highway / air

    • Regionalization: BostWash

    • Globalization.

Location

Canals

Rail

Highway / air


Transport in new york context l.jpg
Transport in New York: Context Area

  • Transport capital: New York / New Jersey

    • Population of 21.2 million (7.5% of the national population).

    • 2nd largest passengers and air freight gateway in the world.

    • 3rd largest container port in the US.

    • Largest public transit system in North America.

  • The gateway function

    • Large international terminals (port and airports).

    • Serves the Eastern Seaboard.

  • Local economy

    • Significant deindustrialization.

    • Service oriented.

    • High level of consumption.






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Mode Share for Commuting, New York, 1980-2000 Metropolitan Population, 2000



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Main Public Transport Agencies in New York Metropolitan Population, 2000

  • PANYNJ (Port Authority of New York & New Jersey)

    • Founded in 1921 to address jurisdictional issues.

    • New York harbor and the lower Hudson River are the boundary between the states of New York and New Jersey.

  • MTA (Metropolitan Transport Authority)

    • Founded in 1965 to provide one comprehensive authority to manage New York’s public transport system.

    • Annual budget of 7.5 billion.

    • Handles 7.7 million passengers per day.


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Sectors of Activity of the PANYNJ Metropolitan Population, 2000


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Sectors of Activity of the MTA Metropolitan Population, 2000


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Congestion in New York Metropolitan Population, 2000

  • Factors specific to the region

    • Geographical factors:

      • Major bottlenecks: bridges over the Hudson and East River.

      • Manhattan; a limited access high density island.

      • Long Island; a “dead-end” with 6 million inhabitants.

    • Early suburbanization:

      • High density single family homes with small lots.

      • Prior to the development of the Interstate system and the boom in motorization.

      • Highways of lesser capacity or not designed to handle heavy traffic.

      • Little if any room for additional capacity.

    • Affluence and land values:

      • Consumption effect.

      • Sprawl (fixity of existing ownership).


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Congestion in New York Metropolitan Population, 2000

  • Electronic toll system

    • “Congestion pricing” has been applied since the construction of trans-Hudson bridges and tunnels.

    • Known as “Ez-Pass”.

    • Implemented between 1993 and 1997.

    • A response to substantial delays at toll booths:

      • More transactions per hour.

    • Each vehicle has an electronic tag linked to an account.

    • Vehicle must slow down to 15 mph (25 km/h) at tool.

    • For bridges accessing NYC, tolls are collected in one direction only (inbound).

    • 1.5 million vehicles per day.

    • Implementation of fast gates (50 mph) starting from 2004.


Toll bridges and roads new york metropolitan area 1000s of vehicles per day l.jpg
Toll Bridges and Roads, New York Metropolitan Area (1000s of vehicles per day)

Hudson River

Long Island Sound

GWB

300

New Jersey

TNB

Bronx

110

100

LT

100

Manhattan

WSB

Garden State Parkway

TBB

125

80

100

QMT

Long Island

HT

Queens

60

BBT

20

20

75

BYB

CBB

Brooklyn

GTB

210

NJ Turnpike

VZB

20

Staten Island

MPB

Lower New York Bay

75

Raritan Bay

OCB


Daily vehicle traffic 1998 l.jpg
Daily Vehicle Traffic, 1998 vehicles per day)

Traffic per Day

< 30,000

30,000 – 50,000

50,000 – 100,000

100,000 – 175,000

> 175,000


Volume to capacity ratio 1998 l.jpg
Volume to Capacity Ratio, 1998 vehicles per day)

VCR

< 0.3

0.3 – 0.5

0.5 – 1.0

1.0 – 1.5

> 1.5


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Challenges of Urban Freight Distribution vehicles per day)

  • Distribution facilities

    • Migrating to more affordable locations in the periphery.

    • Growth in tons-km.

    • Competition between passengers (commuters) and freight traffic.

  • Urban supply chains

    • Difficulties to maintain just-in-time and timely supply.

    • High distribution costs.

    • Adaptation of modes and delivery times.


Truck freight corridors l.jpg
Truck Freight Corridors vehicles per day)

New York

New Jersey

TZB

Connecticut

GWB

Bronx

TBB

TNB

LT

WSB

Manhattan

LGA

Long Island

HT

Queens

EWR

GTB

BYB

Brooklyn

JFK

VZB

Staten Island

Major Crossing

OCB

About 70 million trucks crossings per year


Rail freight corridors and port facilities l.jpg
Rail Freight Corridors and Port Facilities vehicles per day)

New York

New Jersey

Bronx

Manhattan

NJ Distribution Cluster

Long Island

Queens

Brooklyn

Staten Island

Port Terminal

Intermodal Terminal




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Intermodal Facilities and Navigation Channels of the Port of New York, 2003

Albers Equal-Area Conic Projection

East River

40

45

Hudson River

1- Port Newark

2- Port Elizabeth

3- Global Marine

43

Newark Bay

Channel

40

Red Hook

40

1

3

Upper Bay Channel

South Brooklyn

2

45

Brooklyn

45

Daily Truck Movements (one way), 2001

37

Kill Van Kull

Channel

Howland Hook

New Jersey

45

37

Arthur Kill Channel

The Narrows

Staten Island

Navigation Channel

Ambrose Channel

45

45

30

Control Depth (feet)

Main Ship Channel

N

Intermodal Terminal

37

Arthur Kill Channel

37

Container Port (proposed)

Raritan Bay Channel

Major Highway

Proposed rail tunnel



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Port Inland Distribution Network (in short tons)

Albany

Syracuse

Boston

Hartford / Springfield

Worcester / Framingham

Davisville

New Haven

Bridgeport

Potential Regional

Barge Port

New York

Reading

LO/LO Barge Service

Philadelphia

Inland Rail Terminal

New York

Metropolitan Area

Wilmington

Inland Rail Route

Hanover

Camden

Volume to Capacity

LOS

Salem

Potential Freight

Catchment Area

0 – 0.30 (A)

0.31 – 0.50 (B)

0.51 – 0.71 (C)

0.72 – 0.89 (D)

0.90 – 1.15 (E)

> 1.15 (F)

Baltimore

Freight Cluster

Washington