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Methamphetamine and the Work Place. North Dakota Office of the Attorney General Wayne Stenehjem Attorney General. Clandestine Methamphetamine Lab. Clandestine Methamphetamine Lab. Clandestine Methamphetamine Lab. Clandestine Methamphetamine Lab. Clandestine Methamphetamine Lab.

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methamphetamine and the work place
Methamphetamine and the Work Place

North Dakota Office of the Attorney General

Wayne Stenehjem

Attorney General

history of methamphetamine
History of Methamphetamine
  • 1887: Amphetamine was first synthesized by German chemist L. Edeleano.
  • Amphetamine is used in the medical treatment of Narcolepsy, Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) Obesity control, and for increased energy.
history of methamphetamine25
History of Methamphetamine
  • 1919: Methamphetamine was first synthesized by Japanese chemist A. Ogata.
  • 1965: The United States Congress make Methamphetamine and Amphetamine a Schedule II drug, making it illegal to possess unless a person has an prescription.
history of methamphetamine26
History of Methamphetamine
  • 1960’s: Outlaw Biker Groups control the illegal production of Methamphetamine, utilizing the P2P method of production and marketed it as a small white “Cross-Top” pill.
  • 1960’s: Saw the first testing of the affects of Methamphetamine abuse on the human brain and body.
history of methamphetamine27
History of Methamphetamine
  • 1980’s: There was a trend to move away from the use of the pill form, and market in a powder form.
  • 1980’s: Methamphetamine begins to surpass Cocaine as the stimulant of choice.
  • 1980’s: There is a shift from the P2P method to the Ephedrine-Reduction method of production.
history of methamphetamine28
History of Methamphetamine
  • 1980’s: Control of the illegal production and distribution of Methamphetamine begins to shift from the Outlaw Biker Groups to Mexican Nationals.
  • The Mexican Nationals are able to produce larger quantities of higher quality Methamphetamine, but the Outlaw Biker Groups still control the distribution of Methamphetamine in the United States.
history of methamphetamine29
History of Methamphetamine
  • 1990’s-present: Mexican Nationals have taken over the production and distribution of Methamphetamine in the United States.
  • The illegal production and usage of Methamphetamine, in the Midwest has increased drastically, in the past 10 years.
slide30
North Dakota Statistics
  • Methamphetamine samples analyzed by the State Crime Lab:

1993: 65

1994: 85

1995: 218

1996: 304

1997: 450

slide31
North Dakota Statistics
  • Methamphetamine samples analyzed by the State Crime Lab:

1998: 413

1999: 494

2000: 1218

2001: 1505

2002: 767 (To Date)

north dakota statistics
North Dakota Statistics
  • In 2000, for the first time the North Dakota State Crime Lab analyzed more Methamphetamine samples then Marijuana samples.
  • 1979-80: First investigation and seizure of an Amphetamine lab in North Dakota.
  • 1985: First investigation and seizure of a Methamphetamine lab in North Dakota.
north dakota statistics33
North Dakota Statistics
  • Methamphetamine Labs Seized:

1995: 3

1996: 4

1997: 1

1998: 5

1999: 17

north dakota statistics34
North Dakota Statistics
  • North Dakota Statistics:

Methamphetamine Labs Seized:

2000: 46

2001: 89

2002: 135 (To Date)

  • In 2001, approximately 24% of the cases that the NDBCI investigated were Methamphetamine related.
north dakota statistics36
North Dakota Statistics
  • Of the 89 Methamphetamine labs seized in 2001, 84 (94%) were the Lithium-Reduction (Nazi) Method.
  • Of the 89 Methamphetamine labs seized in 2001, 52 (58%) were located in the urban areas, while 37 (42 %) were found in the rural area.
methamphetamine pharmacology
Methamphetamine Pharmacology
  • Methods of Ingestion/Onset:

1) Orally: 20-30 minutes

2) Inhalation: 1-5 minutes

3) Injection:

Intravenously: 5-7 seconds

Intramuscularly: 1-5 minutes

Subcutaneous: 1-5 minutes

4) Smoking: 4-6 seconds

  • The effects of Methamphetamine HCL will last approximately 2-3 hours, and maybe detected in urine 48-72 hours after use.
methamphetamine pharmacology38
Methamphetamine Pharmacology
  • Methamphetamine is extremely powerful and addictive central nervous system stimulant, that also affects the cardiovascular system.
  • Chronic Methamphetamine abuse permanently damages the pleasure center of the brain, so that the only way to experience pleasure would be the continued abuse.
methamphetamine pharmacology40
Methamphetamine Pharmacology
  • Central Nervous System Effects:

Euphoria

Increased Alertness

Increased Energy

Shakes or Tremors

Twitching

Dilated Pupils

Convulsions

Seizures

methamphetamine pharmacology41
Methamphetamine Pharmacology
  • Cardiovascular Systems Effects:

Increased Pulse

Increased Blood Pressure

Increased Heart Rate

Increased Body Temperature

Increased Respiration

Cardiac Arrhythmia

Stroke

Heart Attack

methamphetamine pharmacology42
Methamphetamine Pharmacology
  • Other Symptoms/Effects:

Insomnia

Aggressive/Violent Behavior

Irritability

Severe Mood Swings

Nervous/Anxious Behavior

Paranoid Schizophrenia/Psychosis

methamphetamine pharmacology43
Methamphetamine Pharmacology
  • Other Symptoms/Effects:

Other Psychological Problems

Auditory/Visual Hallucinations

Clinical Depression

False Sense of Power/Confidence

Suppressed Appetite/Weight Loss

Fainting

methamphetamine pharmacology44
Methamphetamine Pharmacology
  • Other Symptoms/Effects:

Impotence

Body Odor/Increased Sweating

Dry Mouth

Dry/Itchy Skin

Acne/Sores

Pale Skin

methamphetamine pharmacology45
Methamphetamine Pharmacology
  • Other Symptoms/Effects:

Retraction/Bleeding of Gum Tissue

Teeth Loss

Increased Urine Output

Numbness

Tingling Sensations

Constant “Electric Buzz” in Ears

methamphetamine pharmacology46
Methamphetamine Pharmacology
  • Long Term Effects:

Fatal Kidney/Lung Damage

Possible Brain Damage

Clinical Depression

Recurring Hallucinations

Violent/Aggressive Behavior

Weight Loss/Weight Gain

methamphetamine pharmacology47
Methamphetamine Pharmacology
  • Long Term Effects:

Insomnia

Permanent Psychological Problems

Paranoid Schizophrenia/Psychosis

Lowered Resistance To Illness

Liver Damage

Stroke

methamphetamine pharmacology48
Methamphetamine Pharmacology
  • Long Term Effects:

Hepatitis A, B, & C

HIV/AIDS (Needle Usage)

Permanent Damage to the Pleasure Center Of The Brain

Disorganized Lifestyle/Social Life

Death

methamphetamine pharmacology49
Methamphetamine Pharmacology
  • Overdose Symptoms:

Seizures

Convulsions

Stroke

Heart Attack

Coma

Death

methamphetamine pharmacology50
Methamphetamine Pharmacology
  • Withdrawal Symptoms:

Severe Cravings

Insomnia/Exhaustion

Intense Restlessness

Severe Depression

Mental Confusion

Extreme Hunger

methamphetamine pharmacology51
Methamphetamine Pharmacology
  • Withdrawal Symptoms:

Psychotic Reactions

Anxiety Reactions

methamphetamine manufacturing56
Methamphetamine Manufacturing
  • There is approximately 48 different methods to illegally manufacture Methamphetamine.
  • The “Super Labs” in California and Arizona utilize the Ephedrine-Reduction or Red Phosphorous Method, that produce 100-200 Lbs per “Cook”.
  • Approximately 95% of the labs seized in North Dakota utilize the Lithium-Reduction (“Nazi”) Method.
methamphetamine manufacturing57
Methamphetamine Manufacturing
  • Lithium-Reduction (“Nazi”) Method is the fastest and easiest way to manufacture Methamphetamine.
  • Approximately 70-80% of the Ephedrine used is converted into Methamphetamine utilizing the Lithium-Reduction (“Nazi”) Method, giving the best yield of any method.
methamphetamine manufacturing58
Methamphetamine Manufacturing
  • For each pound of finished Methamphetamine that is produced, the production process generates five (5)-six (6) pounds of waste by- product.
  • This by-product must be handled as toxic waste and be disposed of according to EPA and OSHA standards.
methamphetamine manufacturing59
Methamphetamine Manufacturing
  • Because of these EPA and OSHA guidelines, it becomes extremely costly to clean up clandestine lab sites.
  • Because each clandestine lab site is considered hazardous, it must be handled by and disposed of by certified hazardous material disposal companies.
methamphetamine manufacturing60
Methamphetamine Manufacturing
  • Common household items used in the manufacturing of Methamphetamine:

Ephedrine/Pseudoephedrine

Lithium Batteries

Anhydrous Ammonia

Rock Salt

Sulfuric Acid

Muriatic Acid

methamphetamine manufacturing61
Methamphetamine Manufacturing
  • Common household items used in the manufacturing of Methamphetamine:

Coleman (Camp Stove) Fuel

Acetone

Ether

Toluene

Naptha Fuel

Starting Fluid

methamphetamine manufacturing62
Methamphetamine Manufacturing
  • Common household items used in the manufacturing of Methamphetamine:

“Heet”

Kerosene

Lacquer/Paint Thinner

Mineral Spirits

Iodine

Red Phosphorous

methamphetamine manufacturing63
Methamphetamine Manufacturing
  • Common household items used in the manufacturing of Methamphetamine:

Aluminum Foil

Red Devil Lye

Drano

Freon

Pie Plates/Pyrex Cookware

Mason Jars

methamphetamine manufacturing64
Methamphetamine Manufacturing
  • Common household items used in the manufacturing of Methamphetamine:

Plastic/Vinyl Tubing

Funnels

Coffee Filters

Sport Bottles

Spoons

Pressure Cooker

methamphetamine manufacturing65
Methamphetamine Manufacturing
  • Common household items used in the manufacturing of Methamphetamine:

Hot Plate

Ice Tea Jars

Gasoline Cans

Propane Tanks

Coolers

Duct Tape

Grinders

methamphetamine manufacturing66
Methamphetamine Manufacturing
  • Where to buy items used in the illegal production of Methamphetamine:

Large Retail Chains

Hardware Stores

Pharmacies

Convenience Stores

Truck Stops

Automotive Stores

methamphetamine manufacturing67
Methamphetamine Manufacturing
  • Where to buy items used in the illegal production of Methamphetamine:

Chemical Supply Companies

Farm and Ranch Stores

Mail Order Companies

Internet Companies

methamphetamine in the work place
Methamphetamine in the Work Place

Special Agent In

Charge

Michael J. Ness

North Dakota Bureau

of Criminal

Investigation

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