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Marie Curie Chairs (EXC) IP FLows over Optical and Wireless (“IP-FLOW”) “Kick-off” Meeting – Monday 28 June, 2004. Yoram Ofek Department of Information and Communications Technology University of Trento, Italy. Agenda. 10:30 Opening:

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Marie Curie Chairs (EXC)IP FLows over Optical and Wireless (“IP-FLOW”)“Kick-off” Meeting – Monday 28 June, 2004

Yoram Ofek

Department of Information and Communications TechnologyUniversity of Trento, Italy


Agenda l.jpg
Agenda

  • 10:30 Opening:

    • Prof. Fausto Giunchiglia – Vice Rector – University of Trento

    • Prof. Roberto Battiti – University of Trento

    • Mr. Philippe Froissard – European Union

  • 10:45 Prof. Yoram Ofek (University of Trento) – IP-FLOW Overview and Planning

  • Discussion/planning Research Area 1:

  • 11:30 Prof. Mario Baldi (Politecnico di Torino) and Prof. Achille Pattavina (Politecnico di Milano) – “Minimum Complexity Non-blocking Switching”

  • 11:50 Prof. Mario Baldi and Ing. Guido Marchetto (Politecnico di Torino) – "Time-based Router”

  • 11:40 Prof. Yoram Ofek “40 Tb/s Time-based Non-blocking Switch Design”

  • Lunch 12:00 – 13:00

  • Discussion/planning Research Area 2:

  • 13:00 Prof. Moti Yung (Columbia University - USA) – “Trusted Flow: Why, How, and Where?”

  • 13:15 Prof. Fabio Massacci (University of Trento) – “Malware Protection”

  • 13:30 Prof. Roberto Battiti (University of Trento) – “Trust and Location”

  • 13:45 Dr. Paolo Falcarin and Dr. Maurizio Morisio (Politecnico di Torino) – “A proposed TrustedFlow System Architecture with Aspect-oriented Implementation”

  • 14:15 Dott. Davide D'Aprile Dr. Daniele Mazzocchi (Istituto Superiore Mario Boella - Torino) – “A TrustedFlow Enabled Run-time Environment and Trusted Flow Formal Specification”

  • 14:30 Dr. Luca Tagliaferri and Prof. Paolo Prinetto (Politecnico di Torino) – “Code Self-checking Techniques for TrustedFlow Implementation”Discussion/planning Research Area 3:

  • 15:00 Prof. Bezalel Gavish (SMU - USA) – Placement of multidirectional antennas

  • 15:15 Prof. Andrea Massa / Prof. Renato Lo Cigno (University of Trento) – “the inter-relationship: APs placement, antenna design, Radio wave propagation properties”

  • 15:30 Prof. Yoram Ofek (University of Trento)– Concluding Discussion

  • 16:00 – 16:30 Refreshment

  • 16:30 – 18:00 Separate discussions and detailed planning

  • 20:00 – Dinner – Ristorante Chiesa

Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


Ip flow overview l.jpg
IP-FLOW Overview

  • Focus on:

  • 1. Flow (switching/forwarding) of data over the Internet: optical and wireless

    • [Rather than on routing]

  • 2. Internet/telecom business and security

  • Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Ip flow overview4 l.jpg
    IP-FLOW Overview

    • Research Area 1 – UTC-based pipeline forwarding for solving switch and link bottlenecksdelivery of very high capacity streaming data

    • Research Area 2 – TrustedFlow for run-time software authenticationtrusted delivery and processing of data

    • Research Area 3 – B-GLOW - Broadband services via GLobal Optical and Wireless integration - delivering streaming data to Wi-Fi clients

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Research area 1 motivation the telecom unfinished story l.jpg

    • Optimal UTC-based pipeline forwarding ensures:

      • 1. Efficient expenditure on equipment/infrastructure:

        • Single fully utilized network – convergence to 1 wire 1 network

      • 2. Revenue from serviceswith deterministic QoS:

        • Streaming/interactive media: video, audio, multimedia

    Research Area 1 - MotivationThe Telecom (Unfinished) Story

    • Why the telecom industry: vendors and providers are more or less in “bankruptcy” ( two trillions $ debts)

    • They ignored cash flow:

      • 1. spending money wisely …

      • 2. earn more money from new services

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Research area 1 utc based pipeline forwarding switching l.jpg

    UTC second

    Time-driven Switching (TDS)

    Time

    Cycle0

    Time

    Cycle1

    Time

    Cycle79

    Time-of-Day or UTC

    1000

    1000

    1000

    1

    2

    1

    2

    1

    2

    0

    beginning

    of a UTC second

    Time-driven Priority (TDP)

    Optimal for Video-Conferencing – Why?

    Research Area 1UTC-based Pipeline Forwarding/Switching

    Pipelines are deployed to increase efficiency in

    • Factory (automotive), Computers (CPU), …

      NOW (deterministic) pipeline over the Internet!Thanks to GPS/GALILEO/... that provides UTC – Coordinated Universal Time everywhere

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Research area 1 utc based for streaming media l.jpg
    Research Area 1 UTC-based for Streaming Media

    • Deterministic performance:

      • No loss,

      • Minimum delay and

      • Constant jitter

      • end-to-end delay < 100 ms - interactive voice/video

  • Minimum buffers for all-optical realization

  • Enables huge capacity increase for streaming

    • 1000 capacity increase may create major switching bottlenecks

  • Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Research area 1 utc based switching complexity l.jpg
    Research Area 1 UTC-based Switching Complexity

    • Minimum complexity non-blocking switching – thus very high scalability

      • Analytically proven

  • UTC-based switch = Banyan

    • Minimum complexity

  • Crossbar:

  • Clos:

  • Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Slide9 l.jpg

    Research Area 1UTC-based 40 Tera-bit/s Switch

    Crosspoint Switches:

    Vitesse –VSC3140VC, or

    MindSpeed – M21150

    1

    1

    1

    1

    32-by-32

    320 Gbps

    32-by-32

    320 Gbps

    32

    32

    Electrical Interconnection

    32

    32

    1

    1

    32-by-32

    320 Gbps

    32-by-32

    320 Gbps

    32

    32

    32x320: 10 Tbps Switching Module

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Slide10 l.jpg

    1

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    1

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    Research Area 1UTC-based 40 Tera-bit/s Switch

    UTC

    Pipeline Forwarding

    Switch Controller

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    32-by-32

    32-by-32

    32-by-32

    32-by-32

    32

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    10 Tbps

    Switching

    Module

    32

    32

    32

    32

    1

    1

    32-by-32

    32-by-32

    32-by-32

    32-by-32

    Interconnection:

    Electrical or Optical

    32

    32

    Only off-the-shelf components

    Thus, simple to prototype

    50 times less complexity

    than HFR (Cisco newest switch)

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Research area 1 optical to wireless challenge l.jpg
    Research Area 1Optical to Wireless Challenge

    • Optical/wireless bandwidth mismatch – factor of 1000 or more

    • UTC-based forwarding ensures:

      • Minimum delay buffering and delay

      • Deterministic no loss

    Bandwidth Mismatch Animation

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Ph d thesis opportunities in research area 1 l.jpg
    Ph.D. Thesis Opportunities in Research Area 1

    • The research activities in this area will be open for students to propose and define their activities since there are still many open issues with regard to performance and realization.

    • Blocking probability analysis of global IP network with time-driven switching and time-driven priority

    • Optics vs. electronics: qualitative and quantitative comparison of UTC-based pipeline forwarding

    • Bandwidth mismatch: streaming from optical to wireless

    • Network architecture design and performance evaluation of multi terabit/second IP packet switches

    • Performance study of time-driven “best-effort” traffic over IP networks

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Research area 2 computing and networking l.jpg
    Research Area 2Computing and Networking

    • Fundamental inventions in the past 50 years:

      • Transistor

      • Laser & optical fiber

    • Lead to exponential growth in

      • Computing

      • Networking

  • Doubling performance every 18-24 mo. - a.k.a. Moore's "Law“

  • Led to the convergence of:

    • Computing and Networking

  • Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Research area 2 computing and networking14 l.jpg
    Research Area 2Computing and Networking

    • Today,

      • Internet: computing/networking are ONE

    • Thus, trusted operation is a major challenge

      • Critical to business:

        • Temporal (and spatial) manipulation of protocols

          • On-line bidding / stocks trading

          • DoS, DDoS – loss of revenues

        • Stealing: content, SW and information

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Is it possible to use the network to alleviate networking trust problem l.jpg

    Is it possible to use the networkto alleviate networkingtrust problem?


    Research area 2 the context of trustedflow l.jpg
    Research Area 2The Context of TrustedFlow

    • A method that combines:

      • Computing and networking

    • For distribution of trust or entrusting

    • Stand-alone computer can be trusted, by definition!

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Research area 2 what do we want to achieve l.jpg
    Research Area 2What Do We Want to Achieve?

    Remote authentication of code during execution

    Trusted 1st computer ensure that SW executed on

    Untrusted 2nd computer was not modified

    Thereby,

    entrusting the 2nd computer

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Research area 2 the trust problem definition l.jpg
    Research Area 2The Trust Problem Definition

    • How to ensure run-time SW authenticity

    • Focusing on two generic protocols:

      • 1. Sending packets:

        • To avoid unfair usage/attacks on networks/servers

          • TCP, SLA, 802.11, …

      • 2. Receiving packets (e.g., content):

        • To ensure digital right management (DRM)

          • Audio, video …

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Research area 2 how entrusting l.jpg

    Entrusting

    Trusted

    Computer

    UNtrusted

    Computer

    Tags

    Computing

    Networking

    Computing

    Research Area 2How: Entrusting

    • (Stream of) Tags are EMANATED from a program=code=software at run-time

    • ENTRUSTINGby verifying theTags

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Research area 2 how entrusting20 l.jpg

    Tags

    (Stream of) Tags Associated with

    Sending Packets

    Receiving Packets

    Periodic Replacement

    of SW parts & Parameters

    Research Area 2How: Entrusting

    Entrusting SW by Verifying

    Trusted

    Computer

    Entrusted SW on

    UNtrusted Computer

    TrustedComputing

    Environment

    Tag Checker

    (TC)

    “HARDENED”with Special

    Hardware/Software

    (e.g., TCPA)

    Untrusted

    Computing

    Environment

    SW with

    Tag Generator

    (TG)

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Research area 2 quality of remote sw authentication with trustedflow l.jpg
    Research Area 2Quality of Remote SW Authenticationwith TrustedFlow

    Better

    Remote

    Authentication

    Operations

    SPACE:

    interlocking

    and

    Hiding

    Of Tag Generation

    TIME:

    periodic

    replacement

    of SW components

    and parameters

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Ph d thesis opportunities in research area 2 l.jpg
    Ph.D. Thesis Opportunities in Research Area 2

    • TrustedFlow for streaming media content protection and management

    • TrustedFlow for 802.11 MAC protocol

    • Reverse TrustedFlow for securing mobile users

    • TrustedFlow for Grid computing

    • TrustedFlow for Internet voting software

    • TrustedFlow for TCP (transport control protocol)

    • Design of the “hiding” function of the tag generator

    • Design of the “interlocking” function of the tag generator

    • TrustedFlow for SLA (service level agreement)

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Slide23 l.jpg

    Research Area 3B-GLOW Overview

    Revenue Generating Services

    Secure Data and

    Content Flows

    ResearchArea 3

    Security

    B-GLOW

    High Fidelity

    Data Flows

    Over Wireless &

    Optical Backbone

    Ubiquitous Computing,

    Storage, Position & Time

    Wireless

    Wi-Fi 802.11

    Mismatch:

    Bandwidth /

    Availability /

    Reliability

    Optical Backbone

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Slide24 l.jpg

    Research Area 3B-GLOW Overview

    Mobile Users with Handheld Devices

    Who Desired to Receive (and Pay for) Quality Content

    Predictable High Quality

    Content Delivery via IP-based Wireless: IEEE 802.11 – Wi-Fi

    Optical Backbone Interfaces: GE/10GE/IP-MPLS/SDH/ …

    Scalable and adaptable Audio/Video Content

    Desired by Mobile Users

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Slide25 l.jpg

    Research Area 3B-GLOW Overview

    Predictable Payments for quality content

    protected that can be protected by DRM

    With scalable flat rate/mini/micro payments

    With multilingual user interfaces

    Objective

    n. 4

    Predictable delivery of scalable content

    To provide scalable audio and video content with coding and representation with run-time SLA protocol and interfaces with UMTS

    Objective

    n. 3

    Objective

    n. 2

    Efficient and timely packet flow and monitoring

    End-to-end Measurements with Feedback to Apps and Users Packet Transmission/Scheduling Protocol for Overcoming Optical/Wireless Bandwidth Mismatch

    To provide capacity to user to satisfy their need

    for content while minimizing infrastructure cost

    Optimized access point location with/without

    directional Antenna

    Objective

    n. 1

    IP-FLOW

    FOCUS

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Slide26 l.jpg

    Research Area 3Focus on Wi-Fi Physical/Network Layer

    802.11 with

    External Antenna

    Omni/Directional

    802.11

    Access Point

    with/out SDMA

    Streaming Media to Mobile Users

    USB

    Multimedia

    Server

    Mobile Device

    PC/PDA/Phone

    802.11 with

    External Antenna

    Omni/Directional

    • Experimental Study:

    • “Hot-spot” and open-space

    • Utilizing both:

      • Network/protocol analyzer

      • RF spectrum analyzer

    USB

    Mobile Device

    PC/PDA/Phone

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Slide27 l.jpg

    2 cm  60

    2 cm  60

    2 cm  60

    2 cm  60

    802.16

    Smaller

    Directional

    Antennas

    But higher loss

    16cm  7.5

    L1

    15GHz

    15GHz

    15GHz

    2 cm  60

    4 cm  30

    8 cm  15

    15GHz

    L2

    Research Area 3Focus on Directional Antennas

    Antenna Gain:G(db) = 10 log10(gmax) = 10 log10 [4*π*A / Lambda 2]

    gmax 4*(3.14)*{(L1*L2)/(Lambda 2)} [Lambda = speed-of-light/Frequency]

    [A=L1*L2 is the rectangular area of antenna aperture in cm 2 ]

    6 cm  60

    6 cm  60

    6 cm  60

    6cm  60

    5GHz

    5GHz

    5GHz

    5GHz

    6 cm  60

    12 cm  30

    24 cm  15

    48 cm  7.5

    L1

    802.11

    L2

    L2

    G(db)  11

    G(db)  14

    G(db)  17

    G(db)  20

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Research area 3 challenge l.jpg

    Antenna Sector 4

    Antenna Sector 5

    Antenna Sector 6

    Antenna Sector 3

    Antenna Sector 2

    Each Antenna Sector is

    Flat Panel with Multiple “Patches”

    Antenna Sector 1

    Research Area 3Challenge

    • Small angle-high gaincontinuously changing best receiving direction, due to:

      • 1. environment factors

      • 2. motion - mobility

      • 3. interference (unlicensed band)

  • Possible solution:

    • multiple sectors

  • Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Slide29 l.jpg

    Research Area 31st Experimental Prototype Only software

    Mobile Device

    Antenna

    Sector 1

    USB

    802.11

    Access Control

    Adapter

    Antenna Control Software

    USB HUB

    USB

    Connection

    Antenna

    Sector 6

    USB

    802.11

    Access Control

    Adapter

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Slide30 l.jpg

    Research Area 32nd Experimental Prototype with RF Switch

    Mobile Device

    Antenna

    Sector 1

    USB

    802.11

    Access Control

    Adapter

    Antenna Control Software

    RF Switch

    USB

    Connection

    Antenna

    Sector 6

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Ph d thesis opportunities in research area 3 l.jpg
    Ph.D. Thesis Opportunities in Research Area 3

    • In-depth experimentation and measurement of content delivery capacity in “hot-spot” as function of the number of active mobile user – using high-end spectrum and network analyzers

    • Studying the inter-relationship between directional antenna and access point placement both analytically and experimentally

    • Design and analysis of the potential benefits of directional antennas for mobile users

    • Studying and analysing how to provide scalable and adaptive audio and video content with necessary coding and representation, including a run-time and adaptive service level agreement protocol for matching capabilities for (paid) quality content delivery to mobile devices

    • Studying and analysing how to provide scalable content with protection using DRM (digital right management) with capability for differentiated payments and micro-payments, that are dependent on the quality of content delivered and on prior classification of users

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Slide32 l.jpg

    ResearchArea 2

    TrustedFlow

    Authentication of

    Data Flows

    ResearchArea 3

    B-GLOW

    High Fidelity

    Data Flows

    Over Wireless &

    Optical Backbone

    ResearchArea 1

    Time-based

    Pipeline

    Forwarding of Data

    IP-FLOW Summary

    Services

    Secure Data and

    Content Flows

    Security

    Ubiquitous Computing,

    Storage, Position & Time

    Wireless

    Wi-Fi 802.11

    Mismatch:

    Bandwidth /

    Availability /

    Reliability

    Optical Backbone

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Ip flow overview33 l.jpg
    IP-FLOW Overview

    • Milestones

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Ip flow overview34 l.jpg
    IP-FLOW Overview

    • PROJECT GANTT

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Ip flow overview35 l.jpg
    IP-FLOW Overview

    • Lecture series: Three graduate courses

      • Course 1: Satisfying QoS Requirements over a Single Networks

      • Course 2: Optical Networking

      • Course 3: The Inter-relationship of QoS, Mobility and Security

    • Seminar Series to Broad Audience

      • Seminar 1: User’s satisfaction and flow of packet over the Internet

      • Seminar 2: The use of time in future packet networks

      • Seminar 3: Trusted computing and run-time authentication of protocols

      • Seminar 4: Moore’s Law and the evolution of optical networking

      • Seminar 5: The inter-relationship of QoS, mobility and security

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


    Ip flow overview36 l.jpg
    IP-FLOW Overview

    • teaching, training, dissemination and Workshops

    Prof. Yoram Ofek - DIT - University of Trento, Italy


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