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Survey of the data sources and compilation practices of EU Member StatesItem 4.1 International Technical Meeting on Measuring Remittances
Eurostat survey on data sources • Issues related to remittances are regularly discussed by the Eurostat BOP Working Group. • In April 2009, a questionnaire was sent to all participants of the Working Group. • Several questions concerning data sources, compilation practices and future plans for measuring remittances and compensation of employees were asked. • 26 Member States and 5 other European countries replied. • A report summarising the responses is not yet available. International meeting on measuring remittances
Responding countries EU Member States: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Greece, Spain, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Latvia, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Slovakia, Slovenia, United Kingdom Other European Countries: Switzerland, Norway, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro International meeting on measuring remittances
Questions Question 1: What data sources is your country using for compiling data on remittances? Please give a detailed description of the data sources and of the methods used for estimating remittances? International meeting on measuring remittances
Data sources (1) • No data on remittances: • Latvia, Slovakia and Slovenia (since 2008). • ITRS (banks report for MTOs): • Montenegro (no threshold) • Bulgaria (threshold) • ITRS + direct reporting from MTOs: • Portugal (most banks report transactions below threshold) • Luxembourg (information from banks below threshold) • ITRS based: • Sweden (basis for estimation ITRS from 2002) • Malta (bank tapes available on a monthly basis) • Belgium (updated by voluntary reports by postal system) International meeting on measuring remittances
Data sources (2) • ITRS + other information • Greece (MTOs included, travel frontier survey to Albania). • Serbia (MTOs included, net inflow of foreign exchange, new foreign currency savings covering informal channel) • Romania (MTOs and Post Offices, government agencies, mirror data) • Cyprus (direct reporting by MTOs, migration data, wages paid to foreign employees) • Bosnia and Herzegovina (direct reporting by MTOs, for informal channel - panel survey, judgements by IMF) • Germany (no of foreigners, assumption on average remittances) International meeting on measuring remittances
Data sources (3) • Direct reports from MTOs • Italy • Lithuania (direct reporting from Post offices, specialised commercial banks) • Spain (outflows: MTOs account for 80%, remaining 20% econometric model, ITRS for geo allocation; inflows: ITRS + estimation below threshold). International meeting on measuring remittances
Data sources (4) • Migration statistics • Switzerland (no of immigrants, income, propensity) • Czech Republic (based on labour force survey, average wage, saving rates) • Finland (stock of migrants, employment rate, propensity) • Netherlands (no of immigrants with country of origin, GDP growth) • Ireland (12 new MS: household survey, wage, propensity to remit; other countries: no of work permit) • Estonia (assumptions – 50%of emigrants are employed, 50% of them remit 15% of heir income) • Poland (migration + specialised survey in UK and IE) International meeting on measuring remittances
Data sources (5) • Income tax records • Austria (outflows: country specific remittance rate + estimation for illegal immigrants; inflows: stock living abroad + assumptions on income and remittance rate) • Hungary (savings = remittances) • Estimations • United Kingdom (based on historic, counterpart's and IMF data) • Denmark (based on a study, remittance levels in neighbouring countries, price index) • Norway (benchmark estimate of 2004, growth in households' primary income) International meeting on measuring remittances
Questions Question 7: Do you have any future plans for improving the collection of data on remittances? If yes, please describe them. International meeting on measuring remittances
Future plans (1) • No plans • Denmark, Hungary, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, Greece, Montenegro, Switzerland • Household surveys • Italy (improved coverage of informal channel) • Cyprus (extend existing survey) • Slovenia, Bosnia Herzegovina, Belgium, Portugal, Sweden • Poland (specialised survey in NL and DE) • Mirror exercise • Austria, Ireland, Spain International meeting on measuring remittances
Future plans (2) • Migration statistics • Estonia (Eurostat data, household survey not successful) • Slovakia (estimations based on migration data) • Luxembourg, United Kingdom, Portugal (econometric model) • Bulgaria (demographic model) • Romania (Eurostat labour force survey) • More direct reporters • Norway (new register of banks, MTOs, post offices) • Portugal • Serbia (more commercial banks) International meeting on measuring remittances
Future plans (3) • Other sources • Czech Republic (verify assumptions) • Sweden (ongoing project to use data from MTOs, banks) • Netherlands (MTOs for countries of destination and origin, population statistics for countries of origin, GDP for grossing up) • Germany (4 steps method recommended by Luxembourg Group) International meeting on measuring remittances
Thank you for your attention International meeting on measuring remittances