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GCSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION. REVISION GUIDE . Reasons for taking part in activity. Reasons for taking part in activity. Health is: “a state of complete mental, physical and social well being, and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity”

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health fitness and exercise performance
Health is:

“a state of complete mental, physical and social well being, and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity”

Can be accomplished by: immunisation, balanced diet, exercise, social interaction.

Health, fitness and exercise performance
health fitness and exercise performance5
Health, fitness and exercise performance
  • Fitness is:

“The ability to meet the demands of the environment”.

  • E.G. how well you can cope with the demands of running a marathon or playing a full game of netball.
health fitness and exercise performance6
Health, fitness and exercise performance
  • Performance is:

“how well a task is completed”

  • Exercise is:

“a form of physical activity done primarily to improve ones health and physical fitness”.

health fitness and exercise performance7
Health, fitness and exercise performance
  • Cardiovascular fitness is:

“the ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time”

  • It is concerned with the healthy working of the heart, blood and blood vessels.
  • Helps us to lead an active lifestyle.
  • Why? Allows us to perform/train for longer
  • How to improve: running etc 60-80% MHR
health fitness and exercise performance8
Health, fitness and exercise performance
  • Muscular strength is:

“The amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance”

  • Very important in sports requiring the exertion of great force e.g. weight lifting, sprinting, shot putt.
  • How to improve – weight training/resistance training.
  • Muscular endurance is:

“The ability to use voluntary muscles many times without getting tired”

  • Very important in sports requiring stamina such as; long distance running, triathlons or football.
  • How to improve – circuit training
health fitness and exercise performance9
Health, fitness and exercise performance
  • Flexibility is:

“The range of movement possible at a joint”

  • Very important in activities using stretching movements such as gymnastics. Also helps reduce risk of injury.
  • How to improve – static, dynamic, PNF
  • Body composition is:

“The percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle and bone”

  • Important as body composition may influence how well suited you are to a particular sport.
  • E.g jockey benefits from being light/rugby player from being heavy.
skill related fitness
Skill related fitness
  • Agility is:

“the ability to change the position of the body quickly and to control the movement of the whole body”

  • Gymnastic floorwork and back somersaults are good examples of activities for which agility is a priority.
  • Games players will use it to beat an opponent
skill related fitness11
Skill related fitness
  • Balance is:

“the ability to retain the centre of mass (gravity) of the body above the base of support with reference to static – stationary – or dynamic changing conditions of movement, shape and orientation”

  • E.g handstand (static), dribbling in football (dynamic balance)
skill related fitness12
Skill related fitness
  • Co-ordination is:

“the ability to use two or more body parts together”

  • Different sports require different types of co-ordination
  • e.g.racket sports require good hand – eye co-ordination
  • Foot – eye co-ordination will be required when striking a ball in a football match.
skill related fitness13
Skill related fitness
  • Power is:

“the ability to do strength performances quickly.

Power = Strength x Speed

  • Throwers need to be powerful but strength alone is not enough they need speed in their throwing action to generate power. A 100m sprinter will also require power to get out of the blocks quickly.
skill related fitness14
Skill related fitness
  • Reaction Time is:

“The time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement”

  • E.g. reacting to the starters gun in the 100m or to a shuttle which has been smashed into your half of the court.
skill related fitness15
Skill related fitness
  • Speed is:

“the differential rate an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a short period of time”

  • Speed is an essential ingredient in most sports
  • E.g. leg speed for a 100m sprinter or speed of limbs and thought for a boxer.
diet health and hygiene
7 requirements of a healthy diet








Diet, Health and Hygiene
diet health and hygiene17
Diet, Health and Hygiene
  • Carbohydrates
  • Maintain our bodies energy stores
  • Two types of carbohydrates = starch + sugars
  • Bread, pasta, rice and potatoes are good sources of starches.
  • It is carbohydrates which provide use with most of our energy when taking part in sport
  • Endurance athletes will need to consume large amounts of carbohydrates in order to keep their energy levels high
diet health and hygiene18
Diet, Health and Hygiene
  • Protein
  • Protein is essential for the growth of muscle and the repair of damaged tissue
  • Foods rich in protein include, poultry, fish, milk, cheese, eggs, lentils and beans.
  • Weight lifters, sprinters and other sportsmen and women requiring large muscle mass will need high protein diets
diet health and hygiene19
Diet, Health and Hygiene
  • Fats
  • Fat is important because it provides energy and helps other things work such as fat soluble vitamins.
  • Energy provided from fats should be considerably less than from carbohydrates
  • Foods rich in fats include, butter, cream, oils etc.
diet health and hygiene20
Diet, Health and Hygiene
  • Vitamins
  • We only require vitamins in small quantities
  • Important for: good vision, good skin, red blood cell formation, healing, healthy bones + teeth.
  • Sources of vitamins include:
  • Vitamin A – milk, cheese, carrots
  • Vitamin B – whole grains and nuts
  • Vitamin C – Found in fruits
diet health and hygiene21
Diet, Health and Hygiene
  • Minerals
  • Are used by our bodies for a variety of functions.
  • Calcium: formation and maintenance of bone and teeth (milk, cheese and cereals)
  • Iron: Important for bloods ability to carry oxygen (iron is found in a range of foods most easily absorbed is in meat)
diet health and hygiene22
Diet, Health and Hygiene
  • Water
  • Transports, nutrients, waste, hormones
  • It is the main component of many cells
  • Helps regulate body temperature
  • Boxers and marathon runners need liquid during their exertion in order to offset dehydration
diet health and hygiene23
Diet, Health and Hygiene
  • Fibre
  • It is vital in the functioning of the digestive system
  • Good sources of fibre include, wholegrain breads and cereals, oats, fruits and vegetables
diet health and hygiene24
Diet, Health and Hygiene
  • Overweight - having weight in excess of normal. Not harmful unless accompanied by overfatness
  • Overfat – having too much body

composition as fat

  • Obese –describes people who are very overfat
diet health and hygiene25
Diet, Health and Hygiene
  • A persons diet will often be affected by the sport for which they are training.
  • I.e. a marathon runner or decathlete will have to consume large amounts of carbohydrates in order to maintain energy levels
  • A weight lifter or heavy-weight boxer will need a diet containing large amounts of protein to maintain and build muscle mass.
  • Whilst a Jockey may need to monitor his diet closely to avoid putting on weight.
diet health and hygiene26
Diet, Health and Hygiene
  • Under eating will result in a loss of body weight and may have a negative effect on performance as the athlete may have low energy levels, or lack of muscle mass
  • Overeating will increase body weight and may make you less agile, flexible and reduced endurance
diet health and hygiene27
Diet, Health and Hygiene
  • Somatotypes (body build/physique)
  • Measurements taken from height, weight, bone size, muscle girth and fat
  • Endomorph
  • Mesomorph
  • Ectomorph
  • Certain body types are particularly suited to different sports!
diet health and hygiene28

Characteristics: Fatness, round body shape, large build.

Effect on sport: often not suited to endurance events, most commonly found in events requiring large body mass and strength, such as sumo.

Diet, Health and Hygiene
diet health and hygiene29

Characteristics: muscular, broad shoulders, triangular body shape

Effect on sport: Most sportsmen are mesomrophs as most sports require strength and power. Strongmen and sprinters are good examples.

Diet, Health and Hygiene
diet health and hygiene30

Characteristics: Thin, lean, low body fat levels

Effect on sport: often found competing in endurance events such as the marathon and sports requiring a light body such as jockey

Diet, Health and Hygiene
diet health and hygiene31
Diet, Health and Hygiene
  • Smoking – Damages heart and lungs and raises blood pressure, increased risk of cancer, heart disease
  • Reduces bodies ability to carry oxygen so performers suffer from fatigue and loss of breath more easily.
  • Alcohol – Can cause damage to the liver and brain cells and increase likelihood of dehydration
  • It may affect performance by impairing judgments, slowing reaction times and causing dehydration, it is commonly used as a sedative in sports such as archery to improve performance.
principles of training sport
Principles of training (Sport)
  • Specificity is:

“doing specific types of activity or exercise to build specific body parts”

  • E.g The training you do must be specific to the area you are trying to improve or the sport you play
principles of training sport33
Principles of training (sPort)
  • Progression is:

“starting slowly and gradually increasing the amount of exercise done”

  • E.g. training more often or training at a higher level
principles of training sport34
Principles of training (spOrt)
  • Overload :

“Fitness can only be improved through training more than you normally do”

principles of training sport35
Principles of training (spoRt)
  • Reversibility:

“any adaptation that takes place as a consequence of training will be reversed when you stop training”

  • If you stop training or train less effectively you will begin to lose fitness
fitt principle
FITT Principle
  • F – Frequency
  • How many times per week you need to train in order to improve fitness.
  • 3 times per week is normally recommended
  • However, If you are training for a marathon or playing professional sport you will need to increase the frequency
fitt principle38
FITT Principle
  • I - Intensity
  • How hard you train
  • The intensity you train at must be sufficient to increase fitness.
  • E.g cardio vascular fitness requires you to train at an intensity that will take your pulse into the target range
fitt principle39
FITT Principle
  • T – Time
  • How long each session must be in order to be of any benefit and to achieve improvement
  • It is recommended that in terms of cardio vascular fitness 20 minutes should be spend working in the target range.
  • Elite performers will obviously train for much longer periods
fitt principle40
FITT Principle
  • T – Type
  • What sort of training you will do
  • For most people this could be a wide variety of activities to take them into the training zone e.g. swimming , cycling, jogging
  • Elite performers will do activities specific to their sports or events.
methods of training
Methods of Training
  • Interval training
  • Periods of work followed by periods of rest
  • E.g. run for 60 secs rest for 30 secs
  • Used in many different sports (particularly team games)
  • Advantages to sport: replicates activity, takes place over short bursts, includes a rest period for recovery, includes repetitions of high quality
methods of training42
Methods of Training
  • Continuous training
  • Continuous training without rest periods
  • Particularly useful for improving cardiovascular fitness
  • Commonly used by distance athletes
  • Advantages to sport: cheap, work individually or in a group, improves aerobic fitness, can be adapted to suit the individual.
methods of training43
Methods of Training
  • Fartlek Training
  • ‘Speedplay’ a combination of fast and slow running.
  • You may sprint for 200m then jog 200m then walk 200m and repeat
  • Advantages include: can be done on a variety of terrain, can be flexible, useful for sports requiring changes of speed e.g. 1500m
methods of training44
Methods of Training
  • Cross training
  • Is a mixture of activities adapted to suit an individuals needs.
  • E.g. one day swimming, one day cycling, one day running.
  • Might not be suitable for elite athletes but is a good way of maintaining general fitness.
  • Advantages include: varied certain muscle groups can be rested, training can be adapted to weather conditions
methods of training45
Methods of Training
  • Circuit training
  • Involves a number of exercises set out at a ‘station’ so you avoid working the same muscle groups consecutively.
  • Improves muscular endurance, cardio vascular fitness and circulo-respiratory fitness.
  • Advantages: offers good all round fitness, cheap, people of all levels can work at their own pace, both aerobic and anaerobic, varied, works a number of different areas.
methods of training46
Methods of Training
  • Weight Training
  • Weight Training is a form of training that uses progressive resistance, either in the form of actual weight lifted or in terms of the number of times the weight is lifted.
  • Weight training is used for:
  • Increase muscular strength
  • Increase muscular endurance
  • Increase speed
  • Develop muscle bulk or size
  • Rehabilitate after illness or injury
methods of training47
Methods of Training
  • Personal Exercise Program (PEP)
  • A personal exercise program is a training plan designed to improve a persons health, fitness and performance and is made to suit their individual needs
  • PEP must use principle of training e.g. overload, progression specificity and the FITT principle
methods of training48
Methods of Training
  • Individual needs
  • It is important the training program is planned around the individual
  • One person may like swimming but another may not be able to swim
  • So activities must be suitable
  • A midfielder in football will require a different training program to a defender or a goal keeper because their needs are different
methods of training49
Methods of Training
  • Training sessions include:
  • A warm up – to prepare the body and mind - Pulse raiser, stretching and activity related work e.g. sprints/shooting
  • Main activity – practice skills, work on fitness etc
  • Cool down – Bring HR back to normal by gentle jogs and stretches
methods of training50
Methods of Training
  • Immediate effects of exercise
  • Increased HR
  • Increased breathing
  • Increased body temperature
  • Sweating
  • Muscle fatigue / tiredness
methods of training51
Methods of Training
  • Effects of regular training and exercise
  • Increased stroke volume and cardiac output (so heart pumps more blood per beat)
  • Quicker recovery rate
  • Lower resting HR
  • More efficient CV system
  • Increase number of capillaries
methods of training52
Methods of Training
  • Long term benefits of exercise
  • Lower blood pressure
  • Reduced risk of coronary heart disease
  • You can work harder for longer
methods of training53
Methods of Training
  • Target Zone
  • Used as a guide to measure intensity of exercise, and can be worked out in the following way:
  • Max HR = 220 – age
  • Lower end of target zone will be 60% of max HR
  • Top end of target zone will be 80% of max HR
methods of training54
E.g. 220 – 20 = 200 bpm (max HR)

Low end target zone is 60% of 200 bpm = 120 bpm

Top end target zone is 80% of 200 bpm = 160 bpm

Therefore the target zone is 120 – 160 bpm

Methods of Training
methods of training55
Aerobic (with air) activity

Any sustained activity requiring increased breathing and oxygen consumption

Aerobic activities normally last for a minute or more

Increases cardio - vascular fitness and efficiency of respiratory system

E.g. long distance running

Anaerobic (without air) activity

Anaerobic activities are high intensity activities over a short period of time

They only last for 40 second or so, even the fittest athletes cannot work at this intensity for longer

Examples include 100m sprint

Methods of Training
the circulatory system
The Circulatory system

Semilunar valves


Left atrium

Vena cavae

Pulmonary artery

Right atrium

Pulmonary veins

Tricuspid valve

Bicuspid valve

Right ventricle

Left ventricle


Cardiac muscle

the circulatory system57
The Circulatory system

Tothe lungs

To the body

From the body

From the lungs

The left side

pumps oxygenated

blood to the rest of

the body for use.

The right side pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen.

the circulatory system58
Blood flows around the body in a ‘figure of eight’ circuit, passing through the heart twice on each circuit. Hence the name the Double Pump System.

There are 2 separate ‘loops’ to the circuit:

The top loop – carries blood from the heart to the lungs and back.

The bottom loop – carries blood from the heart to all over the body and back.

The Circulatory system








the circulatory system59
The Circulatory system

Heart rate is:

“The number of times the heart beats each minute”

  • During exercise your HR will increase
  • With continued training your resting HR will be lower as your heart is stronger and more efficient
  • Stroke volume is:

“the volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction”

  • At rest stroke volume may be 85ml, but when exercising it will increase up to 130ml
the circulatory system60
The Circulatory system
  • Cardiac output is:

“the amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute”

  • Cardiac output is governed by the HR and stroke volume
  • Cardiac output = stroke volume x HR
  • When you train your cardiac output will increase because your heart is be bigger, stronger and more efficient
the circulatory system61
The Circulatory system
  • There are three main types of blood vessels
  • Arteries
  • Veins
  • Capillaries
the circulatory system63
Blood structure: Plasma

It is the liquid part of the blood

Its functions include transporting:

The Circulatory system

Transporting carbon dioxide away from cells to the lungs for removal from the body.

Glucose from the small intestine to the cells for use in energy production.

Other waste products away from cells for removal from the body, e.g. urea and heat when the body is hot.

the circulatory system64
The Circulatory system
  • White blood cells
  • These have a nucleus (control centre) and vary in size and shape
  • Function includes: protecting the body from disease by

Engulfing any invading microbes, defending the body from disease.

Producing antibodies which help the body attack disease.

the circulatory system65
The Circulatory system
  • Platelets
  • These are tiny pieces of cell which have no nucleus
  • Their main function is to:

Clump together when blood vessels are damaged and help to clog a ‘meshwork’ of fibres which create a clot, to help stop bleeding.

the circulatory system66
The Circulatory system
  • Red blood cells
  • These have no nucleus and are very flexible so they can pass through the extremely tiny capillaries of the body.
  • Their main role is to:

In order to do this, red blood cells contain Haemoglobin, which combines with oxygen to become Oxyhaemoglobin.

Collect and carry oxygen to all the cells of the body so they can create energy.

the respiratory system
The Respiratory System


(wind pipe)









the respiratory system68

The intercostal muscles contract pulling the rib cage up and out

Diaphragm contracts causing it to flatten

Chest cavity gets larger causing pressure in the lungs to fall

Air moves into the lungs from the higher outside pressure

The Respiratory System

Air flowing in

the respiratory system69
The Respiratory System
  • Expiration
  • The intercostal muscles relax and so the rib cage returns to normal
  • The diaphragm relaxes pushing it up
  • The chest cavity gets smaller so the pressure in the lungs increases
  • Air flows out of the lungs
  • During periods of exercise expiration becomes an active process involving the forced expulsion of air

Air flowing outward

the respiratory system70
The Respiratory System
  • Alveoli
  • Are tiny structures were diffusion of o2 and co2 takes place
  • Surrounded by capillaries
  • Capillaries have thin walls as well to allow exchange of o2 and co2
  • The more training you do the more alveoli become available for gaseous exchange

Thin wall

Red blood cells


the respiratory system71
The Respiratory System
  • Gaseous exchange
  • Alveoli in close contact with blood capillaries
  • O2 in alveoli is diffused into blood capillaries
  • Whilst the o2 is taken co2 is given out to the alveoli and breathed out
  • O2 is carried via circulatory system around the body in the red blood cells before being deposited in living cells
  • O2 is combined with glucose in the cell to produce energy along with waste products of co2 and water
  • The process then begins again when the deoxygenated blood returns to the lungs
  • During exercise there is increased demand for energy and therefore o2, there is also more co2 produced during exercise which must be removed
the respiratory system72
Oxygen 16%

Oxygen 20.95 %

Nitrogen 79%

Nitrogen 79%

Carbon Dioxide 0.04%

Carbon Dioxide 4.0%

Water vapour 0.01%

Water vapour 1%

The Respiratory System
  • Inhaled air into the

lungs (%)

Exhale air out of the

lungs (%)

the respiratory system73
The Respiratory System
  • Tidal volume

“The volume of air you breath in and out in one breath”

  • Tidal volume increases during exercise
  • Vital capacity

“the maximum amount of air you can breathe out after breathing in as much air as possible”

the respiratory system74
The Respiratory System
  • Oxygen debt

“the amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which would have ordinarily been consumed in the same time at rest (this results in a shortfall in the oxygen available)

  • Bone Growth
  • Bone grows from Cartilage in the body, from when we are born.
  • It hardens with Calcium and other minerals, to form bone, called Ossification.
  • Bone growth begins at the centre of the bone.
  • Growth continues at the end of bones, but cartilage remains at the end of bones.
  • Composition of bone
  • Epiphsis: End of a long bone.
  • Diaphysis: The Shaft of a long bone.
  • Cartilage: A dense, elastic, connective tissue that cushions and connects many bones in the skeleton.
  • Periosteum: Tough membrane which surrounds bone.
  • Calcium: A mineral vital for healthy bones, found in dairy products, eg milk, cheese, yogurt etc…
  • Functions of skeleton
  • Shape – without it we would be a pile of jelly.
  • Support – Allows us to hold positions, standing up.
  • Movement – Allows activity.
  • Blood Production – Marrows within the bone produces all the vital ingredients of blood.
  • Protection – Protects the vital organs, eg, brain, hearts, lung etc..
  • Classification of bones
  • Long – Lever bones.
  • Eg Humerus, femur, phalanges etc..

2. Short – Small Levers.

Eg Carpals, tarsals.

3. Flat – Protecting bones.

Cranium, patella, ribs etc..

4. Irregular – More protection.

Eg Vertebrae, protect the spinal cord.

Bone forms part of our lean body mass, which relate to weight and can affect performance (Diet and Nutrition Year 10).

Bone determines size of body and length of limb, rugby players, gymnasts, high jumpers.

Bones influences Body Composition and can therefore influence participation and performance in Sport.

  • You must also be able to identify the major bones of the body
  • Remember bone size will determine body size, weight and composition.
  • This will in turn affect your performance in sport
  • A good diet and regular exercise will help ensure healthy bone formation and long term health
joints tendons and ligaments
Joints, tendons and ligaments
  • A joint is:

“a place were two bones meet”

  • Joints allow use to move freely during everyday life and in sporting activities
  • Without them our movement would be restricted
  • E.g. joints in our fingers allow us to grip (a racket, ball etc)
joints tendons and ligaments83
Joints, tendons and ligaments
  • You need to now the different types of joint
  • Ball and socket (I.e shoulder0
  • Synovial joint (I.e. knee)
  • You also need to know the role of cartilage, synovial fluid and membrane (give examples form the knee joint
joints tendons and ligaments84
Joints, tendons and ligaments
  • Joint movements
  • Flexion
  • Extension
  • Adduction
  • Abduction
  • Rotation
muscles and muscle action
Muscles and muscle action




muscles and muscle action86
Muscles and muscle action

Hold and rotate the shoulders and also move the head back and sideways.


In the centre of the chest at the back of the body, spreading up.

Latissimus dorsi

Pull your arms down at the shoulders and back behind your back.

At the back of the body, either side of the chest.


At the top of each arm at the back.

Straighten the arms at the elbow.

muscles and muscle action87
Muscles and muscle action


In the upper part of the body, covering the shoulders.

Raise the arms in all directions at the shoulders.


At the top of each arm at the front.

Bend the arms at the elbows.

At the top of each leg at the front.


Straighten the legs at the knees.

muscles and muscle action88
Muscles and muscle action

Raise the arms up, sideways and across the chest at the shoulders.

In the upper part of the chest at the front.


At the front of the body in the middle, just below the chest.

Pull in the abdomen and bend the spine so you can bend forward.


muscles and muscle action89
Muscles and muscle action
  • Muscle types
  • Cardiac muscle
  • cardiac muscle works without you thinking about it (there is no conscious control)
  • It is only found in the walls of the heart
  • Never tires and important for pumping blood around body during periods of activity
muscles and muscle action90
Muscles and muscle action
  • Involuntary muscle
  • Also works without you thinking about it
  • Also known as smooth muscle
  • Found in the walls of arteries, veins, stomach and intestines
muscles and muscle action91
Muscles and muscle action
  • Voluntary muscles
  • You have full control over voluntary muscles
  • They are also know as striated or skeletal muscle.
  • They are attached to bone and cause the skeleton to move.
  • Examples include the triceps and hamstrings.
  • They are the largest group of muscles in the body
muscles and muscle action92
Muscles and muscle action
  • Antagonistic muscles
  • Skeletal muscles work across a joint and are attached to the bones by strong cords known as tendons.
  • They work in pairs, each contracting or relaxing in turn to create movement.
muscles and muscle action93
Muscles and muscle action
  • Flexion (bending) of the arm
  • The muscle doing the work (contracting) and creating the movement is called the agonist or primemover.
  • The muscle which is relaxing and letting the movement take place is called the antagonist.


(Triceps relax)

Agonist or Prime Mover

(Biceps contract)

muscles and muscle action94
Muscles and muscle action
  • Fast twitch fibres
  • Muscle Fibre Type

Fast Twitch

  • Contraction Strength

Very Powerful

  • Energy Production

Anaerobic Respiration

  • Endurance

Can only work for short periods

  • For Who?

Ideal for Sprinters

muscles and muscle action95
Muscles and muscle action
  • Slow twitch fibres

Slow Twitch

  • Muscle Fibre Type


  • Contraction Strength

Aerobic Respiration

  • Energy Production

Can work for long periods

  • Endurance
  • For Who?

Ideal for Marathon Runners

prevention of injury
Prevention of injury
  • In all sports were competition is part of the game, rules will be in place to protect players, officials and spectators from injury.
  • How can we make activities safe?
  • Protective clothing
  • Appropriate footwear
  • Balanced competition
  • Weight categories
  • Mixed or single sexed competition
  • Age Groups
balanced competition
Balanced Competition

Another way to make sport safe is to try to level the competition by grading competitors in various ways:

  • Weight categories – Boxing and Karate.
  • Mixed or single sex competitions – contact sports.
  • Age groups – football etc. (but not all children of the same age are the same height or weight)
sports injuries
Sports Injuries
  • Joint injuries
sports injuries101
Sports injuries
  • Soft tissue injuries
  • Pulled muscle, strained muscle etc are all terms used to describe the same type of injury.
  • The muscle tendons become torn from the bone.
  • Symptoms include pain, unable to move the limb, tearing /pulling sound
sports injuries103
Sports Injuries
  • The treatment for:JOINT INJURIES,

is the R.I.C.E. principle.

sports injury
Sports Injury
  • R – REST
  • I – ICE
sports injury106
Sports Injury
  • This is often caused by a severe impact to the head or when the body is starved of oxygen.
  • The treatment for an unconsciousness is the DR ABC principle.
  • Danger
  • Response
  • Airways
  • Breathing
  • Circulation
sports injury108
Sports Injury
  • Posture
  • It is important to keep our bodies balanced but we often stoop or sag.
  • Over time this can lead to problems with posture resulting in back / neck pain and discomfort
  • It can be caused by slouching in chairs, ill fitting shoes, poor muscle tone, flexibility and being overweight.
sports injuries109
Sports Injuries
  • How can we improve our posture?
  • Strengthen muscles
  • Increase flexibility
  • Loose weight
  • Sit upright
  • Avoid slouching
  • Wear well fitting shoes.