Animal Importation. CAPT Gale Galland, DVM, MS Division of Global Migration and Quarantine Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Department of Health and Human Services. Reasons for Animal Importation. Incidental / accidental Exhibition at zoos Education and research
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Animal Importation CAPT Gale Galland, DVM, MS Division of Global Migration and Quarantine Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Department of Health and Human Services
Reasons for Animal Importation • Incidental / accidental • Exhibition at zoos • Education and research • Scientific conservation programs • Use as food and products • Tourism and immigration • Commercial pet trade
Live Animal Importation - 2005 • 87,991 mammals • 29 species of rodents • 259,000 birds • 1.3 million reptiles • 5.1 million amphibians • 203 million fish U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Data
Exotic Emerging Zoonoses • Ebola – primates, reservoir unknown • Nipah – bats • West Nile – birds, mosquitoes • SARS – masked palm civets, bats • Avian Influenza – poultry, wild birds • Monkeypox – rodents, primates 2001, Pam & Brett Whitesell EM, Marburg virus, CDC gallery
Concerns about Wild Animal Importation for Commerce • High volume, rapid turn-over • Most animals are wild-caught, not captive-raised • No screening prior to shipment • No holding or testing required on entry • Opportunity for widespread exposure of public • High mortality rates (30%-50%) common
HHS/CDC Regulatory Authority • Secretary of HHS has statutory responsibility for preventing introduction, transmission, and spread of communicable diseases in the United States. • At CDC, the Division of Global Migration and Quarantine administers interstate and foreign quarantine regulations (42 CFR 71), which govern the international and interstate movement of persons, animals, and cargo. • The legal foundation for these activities is found in Titles 8 and 42 of the US Code and relevant supporting regulations.
CDC – Division of Global Migration and Quarantine • Enforce HHS regulatory authority at ports of entry • 20 Quarantine stations • Primary focus is human health • Authority to restrict importation of animals is related to health risks they may pose to humans • Species-specific • Pathogen-specific
CDC Station CDC Quarantine Stations & Jurisdictions, 2007 AK ME Minneapolis Seattle Chicago Anchorage VT NH WA Boston MA ND MT Detroit NY MN CT RI MI WI New York NJ OR PA ID SD Newark WY MD Philadelphia IA OH NE IN No.CA WV IL NV VA San Francisco UT KY CO MO Washington D.C. KS NC TN SC So.CA OK AR Atlanta NM AZ Los Angeles AL GA MS San Diego LA West TX East TX El Paso FL Dallas Houston Miami Honolulu HI PR GU San Juan Pending in 2007
CDC Regulatory Authorityfor Importation of Animals and Animal Products 42 CFR 71 (Foreign Quarantine) • 71.51 – Dogs and cats • 71.52 – Turtles, tortoises, and terrapins • 71.53 – Nonhuman Primates • 71.54 – Etiologic agents, hosts, and vectors • 71.56 – African rodents • 71.32(b) – Persons, carriers, things
42 CFR 71.51: Dogs and Cats • CDC Quarantine Staff meet shipments and inspect dogs and cats when possible • Rely on assistance from USDA and CBP staff • Not all dogs and cats are inspected upon entry • Entry may be denied for animals with evidence of zoonotic disease • Emaciation, skin lesions, neurologic symptoms, jaundice, diarrhea) • Can require further examination by a veterinarian at importer’s expense • Dogs must have a valid rabies vaccination
Rabies Concerns • Vaccination requirements are based primarily on concerns about importation of foreign rabies virus variants • The United States was decared free of canine rabies in fall, 2007 • Unvaccinated animals are at risk for infection with variants of rabies present in the United States and thus pose a public health risk.
Importation of Dogs – Additional Rabies Requirements • Unvaccinated dogs may receive rabies vaccine upon entry if owners agree to confine dog for 30 additional days • Puppies < 3 months old must be confined until 3 months of age, then vaccinated for rabies, and confined an additional 30 days • Confinement agreement must be signed by importer • Responsibility cannot be transferred • Enforcement is problematic • Violations may be subject to criminal penalties • Rabies vaccination not required for dogs from rabies-free countries (resided 6 months or more)
Importation of Puppies forCommercial Trade • May be younger than stated age (fraudulent health and breeding records) • Inhumane shipping conditions • Illness and death • CDC can require veterinary exam or diagnostic necropsy • Quarantine station staff may report inhumane treatment to USDA staff • Sometimes sold prior to the end of confinement period Puppy with rabies, CDC photo gallery
Puppy Importation from Mexico • Puppies crossing at U.S.-Mexico land borders • large numbers for commercial resale • more difficult to document than airport entry • sick, too young, high mortality • rabies and other infectious diseases are of concern in Mexico • Puppies may not be adequately declared by importers • Smuggled • Undervalued to avoid Customs penalties • Unvaccinated dogs/puppies still require a confinement agreement • rely on assistance from CBP to issue confinement agreements • documented violations can be prosecuted • Increasing media attention to inhumane treatment of puppies, infectious disease issues
42 CFR 71.52: Turtles, Tortoises, and Terrapins • Restrictions stem from concerns over Salmonella infection • Turtles with shell length < 4 inches may not be imported for commercial purposes • An individual may import up to 6 for noncommercial purposes • May be imported for scientific, educational, or exhibition purposes with a permit • Restrictions also apply to viable turtle eggs Credit: iStockPhoto
42CFR 71.53: NHP Quarantine Requirements • Importers must register with CDC • Certify use for science, education, or exhibition (cannot be imported as pets) • NHPs must be isolated and quarantined for 31 days • Must have negative TB tests prior to release • Filovirus testing for suspected infections • Importers must report suspected zoonotic illness • Importers must maintain records of distribution Credit: iStockPhoto
42 CFR 71.54: Etiologic Agents, Hosts, and Vectors • Persons may not import an animal host or vector of human disease (or animal capable of being a host or vector) without a permit • Bats • Concerns over Ebola, Nipah, SARS, lyssaviruses • Requires permit • Scientific, educational exhibition purposes only • NHP trophies • Concerns over filovirus (Ebola) • Must go to a USDA-licensed taxidermist with permit Credit to Paul Arguin
Bushmeat • Bushmeat composed of nonhuman primates, civets, African rodents, or bats is prohibited by CDC and should always be denied entry • Bushmeat has not been properly treated to render it noninfectious • If the animal species cannot be identified, assume it contains restricted animals • Seizures of CDC-restricted bushmeat should be reported to the CDC Quarantine Station
Importation of Potentially Infectious Products from Restricted Animals • Includes civets, African rodents, bats • May apply to trophies that are not fully disinfected, or blood, tissue • Requires a permit, only allowed for science, education, exhibition Credit: Richard Nadeua
Importation of Nonhuman Primate Trophies, Skulls, and Skins • Regulated under 42 CFR 71.54 (Etiologic Agents, hosts, and vectors) • Allowed with a CDC permit • Must go to a USDA-listed taxidermist • Fully taxidermied or disinfected nonhuman primate trophies may be admitted without a CDC permit Credit: email@example.com
42 CFR 71.56: African Rodents, Prairie Dogs • Restrictions followed a 2003 monkeypox outbreak in the U.S., linked to importation of infected African rodents • November 4, 2003, Interim Final Rule prohibits importation of African rodents and prairie dogs • Includes bushmeat of rodent origin • May be imported for scientific, exhibition, or educational purposes with a permit
42 CFR 71.32(b) Persons, Carriers, or Things When persons, carriers, or things on a carrier are suspected of being infected or contaminated, CDC may require detention, disinfection, disinfestation, fumigation, or other measures necessary to prevent introduction, transmission, or spread of communicable diseases.
42CFR 71.32(b): Order to Restrict Import of Civets • Civets linked to transmission of SARS coronavirus to humans • January 13, 2004, Order prohibits import of civets and genets (family: Viverridae) • Can be imported for scientific/ educational/exhibition purposes with a permit Masked Palm civet (Paguma larvata) from http://www.lioncrusher.com/animal.asp?animal=108
42CFR 71.32(b): Order to Restrict Birds from Countries with HPAI H5N1 • Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, documented human infections. • February 4, 2004, Order • restricts importation of birds and unprocessed bird products • countries with H5N1 in poultry • Parallels USDA-APHIS bans, but purpose is to protect human health. • Allows return of pet birds if they meet USDA quarantine requirements. Credit AFP/File/Shafiq Alam
42CFR 71.32(b): Oddities • Import restrictions on untanned goat-hair products from Haiti • Advisory memorandum No. 107 • Handicrafts (goatskin drums) • 1973 case of cutaneous anthrax Credit: iStockPhoto
Import of Processed Animal Products • May be imported without CDC permit if treated to render noninfectious • Trophies • Processed products • Accepted treatment processes for trophies: • Heat (internal temperature of 70°C or boiling water for 30 minutes) • Preservation in 2% formaldehyde • Chemically treating in acidic or alkaline solutions (soaking in a solution below pH 3.0 or above pH 11.5 for 24 hours) • Use of hypertonic salts
Summary of CDC Animal Authority • Dogs and cats • Dogs required to have proof of rabies vaccination • Dogs and cats subject to inspection and veterinary exam if ill • Turtles < 4 inch shell length (7 or more) • Cannot be brought in for commercial purposes • Can be brought in for scientific/exhibition purposes with permission • Nonhuman primates • Cannot be brought in as pets or for commercial purposes • Only registered importers may bring in animals • Minimum 31-day quarantine, testing for infectious diseases
Summary of CDC Animal Authority • Bats • Can only be brought in for scientific/exhibition purposes with a permit • Nonhuman Primate Trophies • To licensed taxidermist with permit • African Rodents • May only be brought in for scientific, educational, or exhibition purposes with permission • Civets, birds from countries with H5N1 avian influenza • May only be brought in for scientific/exhibition purposes with permission
Summary of CDC Animal Authority • CDC relies on relationships with USDA-APHIS, DOI-FWS, and DHS-CBP for enforcement • CDC’s authority to regulate animals is based on threats they may pose to human health • Implementation has been species-specific and pathogen-specific • CDC is exploring revision of our Animal Importation Regulations • Aim to make more effective and proactive • May consider import restrictions of a broader species range • Clarify and simplify NHP Import Requirements
For More Information www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dq/animal www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dq/quarantine_stations www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dq/lawsand DGMQ Zoonoses Team404-639-3441 Nina Marano, DVM (Branch Chief) Gale Galland, DVM, MS Robert Mullan, MD Sheryl Shapiro, MS