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Welcome to Education 388. Language Policies and Practices http://www.stanford.edu/~hakuta/Courses/Ed388%20Website/Ed388_Syllabus_2008.html. Your friendly team:. Claude Goldenberg (Professor, and Elementary Section) [email protected] [section: Cubberley 206]

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Welcome to Education 388

Language Policies and Practices


Education 388: January 10, 2008

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Your friendly team:

Education 388: January 10, 2008

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Purposes of the Course

Education 388: January 10, 2008

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Lau v. Nichols (1974)

  • Unanimous U.S. Supreme Court decision.

  • Based on Title VI of the Civil Rights Act.

  • Responsibility of school districts.

  • “same” is not “equal”.

  • Both language and content needs of students must be addressed.

  • Did not prescribe actions.

TEETH for reform:

Office for Civil Rights in US DOE for complaints.

Civil Rights Division of Dept. of Justice for prosecution.

Do you think that this court decision is at risk of being overturned?

Education 388: January 10, 2008

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Castañeda Standards

  • Based on Castaneda v. Pickard, U. S. Fifth Circuit Court

  • Provides influential interpretation of “appropriate action” that has been adopted by OCR

  • Brings together theory, implementation and educational outcomes.


  • Places pressure on educators to attend to research and evaluation.

  • Enables an entry point for examining policies and practices.

What preconditions need to exist for this system to be effective in improving educational outcomes for ELLs?

Education 388: January 10, 2008

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The Bilingual Wars

  • A “perfect storm” of education and symbolic politics in debate over “language of instruction.”

  • Proposition 227 (1998 California ballot initiative by Ron Unz)

  • ESEA bilingual “cap wars” in 1980’s

  • Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs (OBEMLA) renamed Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) in 2002 in NCLB.

SCARS and costly losses:

  • Benefits of bilingualism are ignored.

  • Quality of program (bilingual or English-only) gets less attention.

  • Shows that research (Prong 1 of Castaneda) has no bite.

Should bilingual education be banned? Why or why not?

Education 388: January 10, 2008

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Standards-Based Reform

  • Triggered by “Nation at Risk” (1983)

  • Emphasis on aligning education system to achieve “high standards” for “all” students.

  • Focus on accountability and assessment.

  • Goals 2000, Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA), No Child Left Behind (NCLB)

  • State standards: California State Content Frameworks, ELA and ELD standards.


Does “all students” really mean “all”?

What is valid and reliable assessment for English Learners when they are tested in a language in which they are not proficient?

What is the distinction between English Language Arts and English Language Development standards?

The effort of standards-based reform is too heavy-handed and strangles the freedom of educators to exercise their professionalism. Agree or not?

Education 388: January 10, 2008

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Teacher Credentials


  • Bilingual Certificate

  • CLAD/BCLAD (Bilingual/Crosscultural Language and Academic Development)

  • CTEL (California Teaching of English Learners)


  • English Language Learner policies.

  • Linguistics and second language acquisition theory.

  • Cultural and linguistic diversity.

  • English Language Development methodology.

  • Contentmethodology for ELLs.

No Child Left Behind should prescribe these as part of a highly qualified teacher. Agree or not?

Education 388: January 10, 2008

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Secondary to Higher Education

Ethnic distribution of California First Graders (1994)

Access to higher education for ELs and RFEPs through 4-year institutions and community colleges offers new and important goals.

Ethnic gaps across grade cross-sections

Ethnic distribution of UC Freshmen (2005)

Education 388: January 10, 2008

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Assignment #1

  • An e-mail from Georgia

Education 388: January 10, 2008