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Water

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Water

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  1. Water Quantity and Quality

  2. What is Water Pollution? any physical (temperature, oxygen), chemical (mercury), or biological (disease, sewage) change to water that adversely effects its use by living things

  3. Cuyahoga River, Ohio Some river! Chocolate-brown, oily, bubbling with subsurface gases, it oozes rather than flows. "Anyone who falls into the Cuyahoga does not drown," Cleveland's citizens joke grimly. "He decays.” Time Magazine, August 1969 November 1952

  4. Groundwater Pollution

  5. Types of Water Pollution Measured in: Percent (%) Parts per thousand (‰) Parts per million (ppm) Parts per billion (ppb) Biological Chemical Physical

  6. Biological Water Pollution Direct (microbes in water): Typhoid, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis… Infectious Disease(Pathogens) Oxygen-Demanding Waste Entamoeba histolytica

  7. Biological Water Pollution Indirect (Water breeding carriers):malaria, yellow fever, west nile virus… Infectious Disease(Pathogens) Oxygen-Demanding Waste Treehole mosquito (carried La Crosse ensephalitis)

  8. Water Borne Disease

  9. U.S. Water Borne Disease

  10. Coliform Test Detection: • Solutions: • Sewage treatment • Immunization

  11. Biological Water Pollution Infectious Disease(Pathogens) Oxygen-Demanding Waste

  12. Dissolved Oxygen Added by: turbulent water and photosynthesis Removed by: Increased temperature (exsolution) and respiration/decomposition Good: > 6 ppm (mosquitoes can survive in 1 ppm)(also measured in % of maximum - Good = 60-80%)

  13. Dissolved Carbon Dioxide Added by: respiration/decomposition & weathered rock Removed by: Increased temperature (exsolution) and photosynthesis Good: 1-10 ppm (usually about 1 ppm)

  14. Oxygen Sag

  15. Measuring DO and other chemical properties

  16. Chemical Water Pollution Nutrients (Fertilizers) Toxic Inorganic Materials Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP’s) Nitrogen, phosphorous

  17. Eutrophication & Blue Baby Syndrome Dissolved inorganic nitrogen in Baltic Sea

  18. Nitrates • Typically: 0.1-4 ppm • Unpolluted usually below 1 ppm • Sewage pollution increase up to 20 ppm

  19. Chemical Water Pollution • Heavy metals • mercury,lead, tin… • Super Toxic Elements • Arsenic, selenium… • Acids, salts, chlorine • Radioactive Isotopes Nutrients (Fertilizers) Toxic Inorganic Materials Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP’s)

  20. Arsenic in U.S. Waters

  21. Some We Will Measure • Copper • natural, fungicides, insecticides, copper pipes • can be lethal to some at 0.1 ppb, algae – 1-10 ppb, fish 500ppb • water standard 0.3 ppm • Acidity (pH) • 6.5-8.2 normal (rainwater is usually a little acidic) • >9 – harmful to fish (inc. salmon) • <5.5 releases metals in seds, bacteria die and organics don’t decay • <5 insects die and fish eggs don’t hatch • <4 lethal to adult salmon

  22. Some We Will Measure • Salinity • Saltwater 3.5% • Freshwater 1-500 ppm • usually >100 ppm is bad for freshwater organisms • >250 ppm tastes salty (max for drinking water) • Total Dissolved Solids • (Ca,Mg,Hco3, NH4, NO3, PO4, SO4, Na, Cl, Na, K) • from dissolved rock, fertilizer, urban runoff, irrigation, acid rainfall • “watchdog”– high numbers or rapid changes may indicate problem • typically 50-250 ppm • Drinking water must be below 500 ppm

  23. Chemical Water Pollution Nutrients (Fertilizers) Toxic Inorganic Materials Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP’s)

  24. Artificial Chemicals

  25. The Dirty Dozen

  26. Physical Water Pollution Sediment Thermal Pollution Solid Waste Yellow River, China Chattahoochee River, GA

  27. Measured in: • NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Units) • Normal levels: 1-50 NTU • Drinking Water: 0.5-1 NTU • Visible: >5 NTU • Higher during storms

  28. Physical Water Pollution • Causes: • industry • dams • removal of vegetation Sediment Thermal Pollution Solid Waste Optimum – Fish 5-20°C (salmon <12°C)

  29. Physical Water Pollution Sediment Thermal Pollution Solid Waste

  30. Pollution Sources:Point Source Sewage pipes Leaky gas tanks Industrial sites Injection wells

  31. Pollution Sources:Nonpoint Source Agriculture (soil, fertilizer,pesticides) Urban runoff (from pavement) Construction sites Air Pollution

  32. Controlling Water Quality What can we do?

  33. Solutions Legislation Source Reduction Improved Land Use Practices Remediation Sewage Treatment

  34. Clean Water Act 1972 Established water quality standards System for ID’ing point sources Pretreatment for industry Federal funding for sewage treatment Provided for enforcement • Worked well for point sources • Nonpoint sources still a problem

  35. Solutions Remove lead from gasoline Reduce road salting Decrease erosion Banning phosphates in detergents Reduce fertilizer use, etc. Legislation Source Reduction Improved Land Use Practices Remediation Sewage Treatment

  36. Solutions Stormwater treatment Reduce clearcutting Preserve wetlands Better construction practices Legislation Source Reduction Improved Land Use Practices Remediation Sewage Treatment

  37. Solutions Legislation Source Reduction Improved Land Use Practices Remediation Sewage Treatment

  38. Solutions Legislation Source Reduction Improved Land Use Practices Remediation Sewage Treatment Water hyacinths absorb arsenic

  39. Solutions Legislation Source Reduction Improved Land Use Practices Remediation Sewage Treatment West Point Treatment Plant, Seattle

  40. Sewage in King County