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The Status of Women in Developing Asia: What is the Role of Social Institutions?. Johannes Jütting OECD Development Centre. Casa Asia Barcelona  30 March 2006. The Centre at the OECD. Development Assistance Committee (DAC). Intellectual Autonomy Informal Dialogue Framework

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the status of women in developing asia what is the role of social institutions

The Status of Women in Developing Asia: What is the Role of Social Institutions?

Johannes Jütting

OECD Development Centre

Casa Asia

Barcelona  30 March 2006

the centre at the oecd
The Centre at the OECD

Development

Assistance

Committee

(DAC)

  • Intellectual Autonomy
  • Informal Dialogue Framework
  • Capacity Building
  • Staff: 45

Development

Centre

(DEV)

Development Cluster of the OECD

Sahel and

West Africa Club

(SAH)

recently elected female heads of state government in the world
Recently Elected Female Heads of State/Government in the World

Chile: M. Bachelet

Finland: T. Halonen

Germany: A. Merkel

Liberia: E. Johnson Sirleaf

words of caution
Words of caution
  • This presentation

- is based on a development economics perspective

- cannot fully do justice to the variety of different

situations between and within Asian countries

- provides food for thought, instead of blueprint

solutions for change

slide5

Introduction: Why does gender equality matter?

I

A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID)

II

III

Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Asia?

The underlying causes for gender (in)equality: Social Institutions

IV

What can be done?

V

Conclusion

VI

slide6

Introduction: Why does gender equality matter?

I

A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID)

II

III

Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Asia?

The underlying causes for gender (in)equality: Social Institutions

IV

What can be done?

V

Conclusion

VI

i gender equality matters
I) Gender equality matters…
  • Gender equality = women and men have equal conditions for realising their full human rights and for contributing to, and benefiting from economic, social, cultural and political development.
  • Gender equality is an important goal in itself (MDG 3)…
  • … and also contributes to the achievement of other objectives:

- stimulate growth and reduce poverty

- reduce inequities

- contribute to child development

but what determines it
… but what determines it?
  • Causalities between development and gender inequalities not clear
  • 2 main schools of thinking

- Modernisation-neoclassical approach

- Feminist thesis

  • Measurement problems: What? How?
slide9

Introduction: Why does gender equality matter?

I

A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID)

II

III

Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Asia?

The underlying causes for gender (in)equality: Social Institutions

IV

What can be done?

V

Conclusion

VI

ii oecd gender institutions and development database gid
II) OECD Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID)
  • A new tool for researchers and policy makers
  • Allows an analysis of obstacles to women’s economic status
  • Covers 162 economies and has 50 indicators on gender discrimination
  • Includes institutional variables that range from intrahousehold behaviour to social norms
indicators affecting the economic role of women
Indicators affecting the Economic Role of Women

Economic Development

GDP per capita

Access to Resources

Health

Education

Economic Status of Women

Social Institutions

Family Code

Labour Market Participation

Physical Integrity

Civil Liberties

Ownership Rights

Source: Own Illustration.

gid indicators social institutions
GID-Indicators : Social Institutions
  • Physical Integrity

- Legislation punishing acts of violence against women

- Prevalence of female genital mutilation

  • Family Code

- Marriage before the age of 20

- Acceptance of polygamy within a society

- Parental authority granted to father and mother equally

- Inheritance practices in favour of male heirs

  • Ownership Rights

- Women’s access to land ownership

- Women’s access to bank loans

- Women’s access to property other than land

  • Civil Liberties

- Freedom of movement

- Obligation to wear a veil in public

early marriages in india
Early Marriages in India

In the Rajgarh district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, a group of girl brides sit solemnly during celebrations that will culminate in their weddings later in the day.

Source: Courtesy of the United Nations Children's Foundation

violence against women
Violence against women

Source: BBC News

Source: AFP

According to a UN report (2000), one in three woman in the world has been beaten, coerced into sex or abused in some other way, most often by someone she knows.

slide15

Introduction: Why does gender equality matter?

I

A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID)

II

III

Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Asia?

The underlying causes for gender (in)equality: Social Institutions

IV

What can be done?

V

Conclusion

VI

iii the situation of women in asia a global regional and country perspective
III) The Situation of Women in Asia: a global, regional and country perspective
  • South Asia - SA (7 economies):

Afghanistan; Bangladesh; Bhutan; India; Nepal; Pakistan; Sri Lanka

  • East Asia and Pacific - EAP (17 economies):

China; Fiji; Hong Kong, China; Indonesia; Cambodia; Lao PDR; Myanmar; Mongolia; Malaysia; Philippines; Papua New Guinea; Korea, Dem. Rep.; Singapore; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Chinese Taipei; Viet Nam; Australia; Japan; Korea, Rep.; New Zealand

  • OECD-East Asia and Pacific (4 economies):

Australia; Japan; Korea, Rep.; New Zealand

global perspective employment education and health care
Global perspective: employment, education and health care
  • Important divide between:

- East Asia and Pacific, Latin America and OECD

countries

- South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and the MENA

region

employment
Employment

Source: GID Database

education
Education

Source: GID Database

education20
Education

Source: GID Database

health care
Health Care

* of 100,000 life births

Source: GID Database

regional perspective south asia versus east asia and pacific
Regional Perspective: South Asia versus East Asia and Pacific
  • Employment

- Female participation in the paid work force in South Asia is only half of the rate in East Asia and Pacific*

  • Education

- Important difference in tertiary education

  • Health Care

- Significantly higher maternal mortality rate

employment23
Employment

Source: GID Database

education24
Education

Source: GID Database

health care25
Health Care

* of 100,000 life births

Source: GID Database

country perspective indonesia versus pakistan
Country Perspective: Indonesia versus Pakistan
  • Indonesia

- Largest Muslim population in the world (about 210 million, 2004 = 88%)

- GDP per capita ($ PPP) = 3583.47; GDP per capita growth = 3.7%

- Employment: about one third of the total paid work force are women

- Education: more than 90% of girls get primary education

- Health Care: high maternal mortality

  • Pakistan

- 2ndsecond most populous Muslim country in the world (about 157 million, 2005 =

96%)

- GDP per capita ($ PPP) = 2209.97; GDP per capita growth = 4.4%

- Employment: about one eighth of the total paid work force are women

- Education: only half of the girls get primary education, almost none get tertiary

- Health Care: maternal mortality twice as high as in Indonesia

employment27
Employment

Source: GID Database

education28
Education

Source: GID Database

health care29
Health Care

* of 100,000 life births

Source: GID Database

slide30

Introduction: Why does gender equality matter?

I

A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID)

II

III

Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Asia?

The underlying causes for gender (in)equality: Social Institutions

IV

What can be done?

V

Conclusion

VI

iv the roots of gender discrimination in asia social institutions
IV) The Roots of Gender Discrimination in Asia: Social Institutions
  • Overall situation
  • Ownership Rights
  • Family Code
  • Early Marriage
social institutions
Social Institutions

Scale: 0 (minimum) to 1 (maximum) = level of discrimination through social institutions

Source: GID Database

country perspective two cases compared
Country Perspective: Two cases compared

Scale: 0 (minimum) to 1 (maximum) = level of discrimination through social institutions

Source: GID Database

early marriages in asia
Early Marriages in Asia

Source: GID Database

mean age of women at marriage in asian countries
Mean Age of Women at Marriage in Asian Countries

Country

Years

Bangladesh (SA)

19

Nepal (SA)

19

India (SA)

20

Pakistan (SA)

21

Papua New Guinea

21

Vietnam

22

China

23

Indonesia

23

Korea, Rep.

25

Sri Lanka

(SA)

25

Australia

29

Source: GID Database

ownership rights
Ownership Rights

Scale: 0 (minimum) to 1 (maximum) = level of discrimination through social institutions

Source: GID Database

family code
Family Code

Scale: 0 (minimum) to 1 (maximum) = level of discrimination through social institutions

Source: GID Database

slide39

Introduction: Why does gender equality matter?

I

A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID)

II

III

Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Asia?

The underlying causes for gender (in)equality: Social Institutions

IV

What can be done?

V

Conclusion

VI

v what can be done
V) What can be done?
  • Empowerment of women

- More participation of women in decision making on

community level (example: quota in India)

  • Sex-disaggregated data collection
  • Enforcement reform of legal structures

- Monitoring systems to ensure changes

  • Convince men of benefit of reforms

- Men should get incentives to accept changes and in

some cases compensation for potential losses

barriers to change some important caveats
Barriers to change: some important caveats
  • Depth of tradition

- Examples: polygamy, early marriage

- Rural population remains attached to such traditions despite their legal

interdiction

  • Not in men’s interest

- Examples: polygamy, repudiation

- Inequality provides men with material advantages that they lose upon

reform

  • Limited enforcement of reforms

- Example: Widely toleration of violence against women by police in

northern states of India

- Wide gap in performance between the publication of a law and its

effective implementation

gender equality is getting more and more attention
Gender equality is getting more and more attention…

Bangladeshi women take part in a protest demanding equal rights in Dhaka.

Photo: AFP

and a voice
…and a voice

Women police officers in India have formed a national forum to fight sexual harassment and discrimination from their male colleagues.

Source: BBC news

india s first computer literate village
India's first computer-literate village

At least one member of every family in the village — there are 850 families — has completed basic computer literacy training.

Photo: M.S. Vinod

the grameen phone scheme telephone ladies connect bangladesh
The Grameen Phone scheme - 'Telephone ladies' connect Bangladesh

Grameen phone ladies provide villagers with a vital link to services such as hospitals and to relatives both at home and abroad, in a country with the lowest number of phones in South Asia.

slide46

Introduction: Why does gender equality matter?

I

A new tool: The Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID)

II

III

Applying the GID: What is the situation of women in Asia?

The underlying causes for gender (in)equality: Social Institutions

IV

What can be done?

V

Conclusion

VI

vi conclusions
VI) Conclusions
  • Gender equality is key to development
  • Role of social institutions overlooked
  • Changes are possible in different settings
  • Need to provide the right incentives
  • Strategies should be flexible and adapted to levels of development and socio-economic context
slide49
Contact:

Johannes JüttingOECD Development CentreWeb: www.oecd.org/dev E-mail: Johannes.Jutting@oecd.org GID: http://www.oecd.org/dev/institutions/GIDdatabase