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The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS): development and utility of an existing system for collecting data and monitoring child abuse in the US. John D. Fluke Vice President Research Walter R. McDonald & Associates, Inc. EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE

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John d fluke vice president research walter r mcdonald associates inc l.jpg

The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS):development and utility of an existing system for collecting data and monitoring child abuse in the US

John D. Fluke

Vice President Research

Walter R. McDonald & Associates, Inc.

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE

Child abuse: which kind of data for monitoring?

Florence, Istituto degli Innocenti, 18 January 2007


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Overview

  • Brief History of National US Child Maltreatment Data Collection

  • NCANDS Scope and Methods

  • NCANDS Data

  • Policy and Trends (examples)

    • Example: Recurrence

  • General Discussion of NCANDS and

  • The Value of NCANDS Like Systems

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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National Child Maltreatment Data: Brief History and Context

  • Early Studies in the US

    • Incidents Extracted from Media Reports (1950s – 1970s)

    • National Reporting Study on Child Abuse and Neglect

      • 1976 – 1988

  • Other Studies of Incidence

    • Strauss and Gelles

    • Finkelhor

    • Prevent Child Abuse America

  • Major US National Data Collection Activities

    • National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS)

      • 1988 -

    • Other National Data Collection Programs

      • National Incidence Study (NIS)

      • Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS)

      • National Study of Child and Adolescent Well Being (NSCAW)

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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Scope, Goals and Purposes of the NCANDS Data Collection Program

  • Meets US legal requirements to collect child maltreatment data

  • Provides data that are critical to policymakers and administrators of CPS programs

  • Data are used to support a range of US initiatives, notably

    • ASFA Outcome Measures

    • Child and Family Services Review Process

    • Office of Management and Budget Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART)

  • Contribute to the understanding of child maltreatment and the impact of intervention policy

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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NCANDS Data Collection and Analysis Methods Program

  • Sample

    • Universe uses no systematic “sampling” approach.

    • Data are administrative and derived from state Child Protective Service Agencies.

  • Representation

    • Represents only cases known to one particular service sector (child welfare).

    • Includes data from all US states (case level data from 46 of 52 States in 2005).

  • Data Collection

    • Aggregate Data are survey.

    • Case level from State information systems.

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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NCANDS Data Collection and Analysis Methods Program

  • Mapping and Validation of Data

    • Data are mapped to national categories

    • Data are validated for coding, internal consistency, and analytical accuracy and comprehensiveness

  • Measures of Maltreatment

    • Six major categories (Physical, neglect, medical neglect, sexual, emotional, other).

  • Longitudinal

    • Aggregate data since 1990; case level data since 1993.

    • Encrypted unique child and perpetrator identifiers.

  • Time Period

    • Data are collected annually.

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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Investigation and Victimization Rates, 1990-2004 Program

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE



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Figure 3-3 Victimization Rates by Maltreatment Type, 2000-2004

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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Policy and Trends (Example) 2000-2004 :Child and Family Service Review (CFSR) Maltreatment Recurrence

  • In August 2001, the US Children’s Bureau set the first national standard for recurrence :

    • A State meets the national standard if of all children who were victims of substantiated or indicated child abuse and/or neglect during the first 6 months of the period under review, 6.1 percent or fewer children had another substantiated or indicated report within 6 months.

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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Child and Family Service Review (CFSR) Maltreatment Recurrence (continued)

  • As of June 2006 the Standard has been revised

    • Of all children who were victims of a substantiated or indicated maltreatment allegation during the first 6 months of FY 2004, what percent were not victims of another substantiated or indicated maltreatment allegation within the 6-months following that maltreatment incident?

    • National Standard Based on 45 States: 94.6% or higher

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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Survival Analysis Plot for 2002 CM Data: Recurrence (continued)Recurrence During a 12 Month Period, Over 75% Recurred Within 6 Months (n = 210,641 – 26 States)

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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Policy and Trends (Example) Recurrence (continued) :How is Data Translated Into Policy and Programs?

  • Specific States not meeting standard must implement a 3 year Program Improvement Plan (PIP) approved by the US government

    • Plans address a range of programmatic and intervention strategies, for example:

      • Multiple maltreatment and chronic neglect

      • Alternative response systems

      • Safety and risk assessment systems

      • Additional research and evaluation

  • States not in compliance may be subject to penalties

  • After each three year cycle the US standards are reviewed and revised.

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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Policy and Trends (Example 1) Recurrence (continued) :Policy Related Research Questions

1. What are the trends in recurrence rates over time?

2. In the presence of other factors that are associated with recurrence, what is the basis for a possible trend in recurrence rates over time?

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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Children Who Experience Recurrence Within 6 Months Recurrence (continued)(12 States)

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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Research Questions Recurrence (continued)

…and Answers

1. What are the trends in recurrence rates over time?

We see a decline in recurrence rates over time.

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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Research Questions Recurrence (continued)

What factors predict the likelihood of recurrence?

…and Answers

Child Age, Disability, Maltreatment Type, Perpetrator Relationship, Report Source, Services, Prior Victimization

Does the trend in reduced recurrence operate on its own?

No, the trend doesn’t exist on its own and operates best when it interacts with other factors such as maltreatment, report source, and the provision of foster care placement.

Conclusion: The decline in recurrence among the States is not just a function of time but is associated with reductions in risk factors over time. The possibility that State Program Improvement Plans may have been successful in mitigating some risk factors thereby reducing recurrence cannot be dismissed.

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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How do the NCANDS Data Support National and State Level Policy and Intervention?

  • Some of examples of data supporting policy:

    • Problem Recognition

      • Re-entry (rereporting, recurrence, recidivism, etc.)

      • Racial Disproportionality and Disparity

      • Neglect

    • Standard Setting

      • Child and Family Services Review Standard Setting

      • Information System Guidelines (SACWIS)

    • Monitoring

      • Child and Family Services Review

      • Alternative Response Implementation

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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General Discussion of NCANDS Policy and Intervention?

  • Facilitators of Case Level Data Collection in the US

    • US Legislation

    • Related Programs State Automated Child Welfare

      • Information Systems (SACWIS)

      • Child and Family Service Review Process (CFSR)

  • System has evolved

    • Almost all States are Now Providing Case Level Data (46 in 2005)

    • Data are timely and available annually

    • Range of applications has expanded dramatically

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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NCANDS Characteristics/Features Policy and Intervention?

  • Action (regulations, policy, programs)

    • Data collection program is authorized by US Office of Management and Budget (OMB)

    • Supports US HHS Children’s Bureau Child and Family Services Review Process (CSFR)

    • Support Children’s Bureau OMB Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART) measures

  • Evaluation

    • Contract is competitively bid by the US HHS Children’s Bureau

  • Feedback loop

    • Project convenes a State Advisory Group each year

    • Data program is reviewed for revision every three year

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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NCANDS Characteristics/Features Policy and Intervention?

  • Training

    • Ongoing training and technical assistance for States

  • Quality Assessment

    • Evolving set of procedures for data mapping (definitions), data consistency analysis, data review.

    • Increased use of information system platforms to insure data integrity

    • Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) process with States

  • Analysis

    • Annual report

    • Descriptive analysis

    • Compliance reports

    • Policy studies

    • Longitudinal studies

  • Dissemination

    • Annual reports (most recent Child Maltreatment 2004)

      • http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/stats_research/

    • The National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect (NDACAN) at Cornell University

      • http://www.ndacan.cornell.edu/

    • Special Reports, Presentations, Publications

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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Discussion Policy and Intervention?continued

  • How is the existence of multiple definitions handled within the US?

    • Categories are general, capturing a universal view of the measurement objective

    • Specific definitions at the State level are mapped to NCANDS Categories

    • Differences are acknowledged in describing the data

    • States are encouraged to improve their data and address issues of consistency over time

  • How are different needs for various audiences such as policy, finance, performance outcomes, and research dealt with?

    • A range of analytic products are developed for various audiences ranging from the general public to researchers

    • Data are disseminated for secondary analysis

    • Specific analysis and analytic infrastructure is developed to meet various US reporting requirements

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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Current and timely Policy and Intervention?

Who is served

How many

Characteristics

Continuity

Ability to monitor trends

Outcomes and performance

Research

Longitudinal data

Special populations

Infrequent events

Decision making

Sampling frames

Assess Resource

Staffing

Cost

The Value of NCANDS Like Systems

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE


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Disclaimer Policy and Intervention?

The views expressed in written conference materials or

publications and by speakers, do not necessarily reflect the official

policies of the Department of Health and Human Services, nor

does mention of trade names, commercial practices, or

organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

Contact

John D. Fluke Ph. D.

Vice President of Research

Walter R. McDonald & Associates, Inc.

5445 DTC Parkway Penthouse Four

Greenwood Village, CO 80111

USA

(303) 488-3437

jfluke@wrma.com

EUROPEAN SEMINAR ON MONITORING SYSTEMS OF CHILD ABUSE