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The History and Ethics of Vivisection. Rowan (1984)*.

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Rowan 1984
Rowan (1984)*

“It is just not adequate for scientists to argue that there is a quantum difference between the moral status of humans and other animals if they are unable to give reasons for such a belief and defend their reasons in the arena of modern philosophical debate.”

* In “Of mice and men – a critical evaluation of Animal Research”


Cave painting from altamira drawn up to 15 000 years ago
Cave painting from Altamira- drawn up to 15,000 years ago


Lascaux caves drawn over 10 000years ago
Lascaux caves - drawn over 10,000years ago


Mural from egyptian tomb painted c 4000 years ago
Mural from Egyptian tomb - painted c. 4000 years ago


The history and ethics of vivisection

Galen of Pergamum (129-199)

- first record of vivisection?


The history and ethics of vivisection

Alcmaeon of Croton - C. 500 BC - brain, not heart the central organ of sense, optic nerve function

Hippocrates - born in 460 BC. Observation and study of human body. Rational explanation for disease.

Aristotle (c. 350 BC)

- Man rational and therefore at head


Romans up to 5000 animals a day slaughtered in amphitheatres
Romans - up to 5000 animals a day slaughtered in amphitheatres


The history and ethics of vivisection

Virgil, Ovid, Cicero

- great compassion for animals

Plutarch, Seneca

- man has a duty of kindness to humans and animals


The history and ethics of vivisection

St. Francis

- compassion for animals

St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)

- only humans are rational.

Animals exist for human needs

and have no moral status /soul


The history and ethics of vivisection

1348 - Bubonic plague

Almost half of Europe’s population wiped out. Local, regional or pan- European outbreaks for next 200 years.

Hunts - mass extinctions

Animals for sport Bull baiting

Cock fighting


Renaissance

Renaissance

- renewed interest in

Science and Philosophy


The history and ethics of vivisection

Witch trials

- animals treated as rational beings - tried and sentenced, especially when suspected of being mediums for witches.

Vatican

- sparrows excommunicated


Rene descartes 1596 1650
Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

Expanded on Christian humanist philosophy

- the soul distinguishes the human from all other animals

- 'beast machine'

- unoiled cogs of robots


The history and ethics of vivisection

William Harvey (1578-1657)

Demonstrated blood circulation

using vivisection (C. 1620)

A significant increase in vivisection followed


The history and ethics of vivisection

Samuel Johnson in The Idler (c.1770)

"Among the inferior Professors of medical knowledge is a race of wretches, whose lives are varied only by varieties of cruelty; ............the truth is that by knives, fire and poison knowledge is not always sought and very seldom attained. .......and if knowledge of physiology has been somewhat increased, he surely buys knowledge dear who learns the use of the lacteals at the expense of his humanity."


The history and ethics of vivisection

O'Meara (1655)

"the miserable torture of vivisection surely places the body in an unnatural state".

Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke

Concern for welfare of their subjects but

convinced that the costs were justified.


The history and ethics of vivisection

Jeremy Bentham

(1748-1832)

"The question is not - Can they reason?

nor Can they talk ? but Can they suffer?"


Bentham cont
Bentham (cont.)

  • All humans worthy of equal and humane consideration

  • 'the day may come when the rest of animal creation may acquire those rights which never could have been withholden from them except by the hand of tyranny'


The history and ethics of vivisection

1790's - agitation for anti-cruelty laws. (butchers convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

1822 - Martin's Act

Offence to wantonly abuse, beat or ill-treat any animal the property of any other person or persons.

1835 - Joseph Pease

- others property clause removed.


The history and ethics of vivisection

Francois Magendie convicted after cutting off sheep's feet). - 1820's

- public lectures and demonstrations involving vivisection


The history and ethics of vivisection

Marshall Hall (1830s) convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

5 guiding principles - basis of 1876 CAA


Five guiding principles
Five guiding principles convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

1. Is the experiment necessary ?

2. Does it have the possibility of achieving the desired result?

3. Can the protocol be modified to reduce discomfort?

4. Has the experiment been done before?

5. Will the protocol produce valid results?


The history and ethics of vivisection

1824 - convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).SPCA founded by Richard Martin

1835 - Royal patronage

1840 - RSPCA

1850's - anaesthesia.

- RSPCA object to vivisection

1874 - Victoria objects to vivisection

1875 - Bill presented to Commons

1876 – Cruelty to Animals Act


Frances power cobbe 1822 1904
Frances Power-Cobbe (1822-1904) convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

  • Victoria Street Society for the Protection of Animals from Vivisection

  • Victoria Street Society for the Abolition of Vivisection after 1876 Act

  • 1898 - Founded the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection


Tissue and organ transplants
Tissue and organ transplants convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

  • Corneal transplants, 1800s. First human – 1906.

  • First work on organ transplants, 1912.

  • First kidney transplants, 1950s initially in dogs.

  • Heart surgery, 1940s initially in dogs.

  • Heart transplants, 1960s. Monkey to human 1964; human to human 1967.

  • Initial bone marrow transplants in mice, 1970s.

  • Replacement heart valves, 1970s.


Corneal transplants early 1900s
Corneal transplants – early 1900s convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

  • First successful transplants

  • Work on animals for many years

  • First human transplant in 1906


1920s
1920s convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

Canine distemper vaccine

Insulin for diabetics


1930s 1940s
1930s – 1940s convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

  • Broad spectrum antibiotics

  • Modern anaesthetics

  • Whooping cough and diphtheria vaccines


1940s
1940s convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

Heart and lung machine for open heart surgery


Kidney transplants
Kidney transplants convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

  • Work carried out initially in dogs

  • First human transplants in 1950s

  • Problems with rejection – many years of work with animals to understand and overcome.


1950s
1950s convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

  • Polio vaccine

  • Hip replacement surgery

  • Drugs for high blood pressure


1960s
1960s convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

  • Heart transplant operations – initially in dogs; monkey to human in 1964 and human to human in 1967.

  • 1965 - Genetic basis of tissue typing from work on animals.

  • Rubella vaccine


1970s
1970s convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

Drugs for gastric ulcers

Improved treatment for asthma


Replacement heart valves
Replacement heart valves convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

  • Replacement valve, usually from pigs, washed, denatured and tanned to render it biologically inert.

  • Developed after many years work in rabbits, Guinea pigs and rats.


The history and ethics of vivisection

Coronary bypass surgery convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).


1980s
1980s convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

  • Drugs to prevent transplant rejection

  • Drugs for viral diseases


Medical milestones
Medical milestones convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

1900sCorneal transplantsLocal anaesthetics1920sInsulin for diabeticsCanine distemper vaccine1930sModern anaestheticsDiphtheria vaccine1940sBroad spectrum antibiotics for infectionsWhooping cough vaccineHeart lung machine for open heart surgery


Medical milestones1
Medical milestones convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

1950sKidney transplantsCardiac pacemakersReplacement heart valvesPolio vaccineDrugs for high blood pressureHip replacement surgery

1960sGerman measles vaccineCoronary bypass operationsHeart transplantsDrugs to treat mental illness


Medical milestones2
Medical milestones convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

1970sDrugs to treat ulcers, asthma and leukaemiaImproved sutures and other surgical techniques

1980sDrugs to control transplant rejectionCAT scanning for improved diagnosisLife support systems for premature babiesDrugs to treat viral diseases


Medical milestones3
Medical milestones convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

1990sFeline leukaemia vaccineMeningitis vaccineNew drugs for some cancersBetter drugs for depressionCombined drug therapy for HIV infection


Ethics
Ethics convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

  • The philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it

  • Moral philosophy


Utilitarianism
UTILITARIANISM convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

  • Consequentialist theory

  • The right action is the one which brings about the best aggregate consequences

  • Total benefits outweigh total suffering


Deontology rights view
DEONTOLOGY (Rights view) convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

  • Value of animals not reducible to their utility relative to the interests of others

  • Certain beings have certain moral rights

  • The use of animals in research (or farming) is wrong because it violates the moral rights of the animals used.


The history and ethics of vivisection

(1975) Animal Liberation convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

- Peter Singer

Proposed that moral consideration should transcend the species boundary to include all sentient animals.

Called for reasoned intellectual debate


Peter singer
Peter Singer convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

'If a being suffers, there can be no moral justification for refusing to take that suffering into consideration. No matter what the nature of the being, the principle of equality requires that its suffering be counted equally with the like suffering of any other being.'


Inherent value tom regan
Inherent value convicted after cutting off sheep's feet). - Tom Regan

'Animals, it is true, lack many of the abilities humans possess. They can't read, do higher maths, build a bookcase or make baba ghanoush. Neither can many humans, and yet we don't (and shouldn't) say that they therefore have less inherent value, less of a right to be treated with respect, than do others.'


Albert schweitzer 1875 1965
Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) convicted after cutting off sheep's feet).

Ethics must widen the circle from the narrowest limits of the family, first to include the clan, then the tribe, then the nation and finally all mankind.'

........'By reason of the quite universal idea of participation in a common nature, it is compelled to declare the unity of mankind with all created beings.'