The heart and circulation
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The Heart and Circulation. Cardiovascular System = Heart, Blood and Vessels Lymphatic System = Lymph nodes, Organs and Vessels. The Heart. External Innervation Vagus (parasympathetic) C + T sympathetic chain ganglion Pericardium (3 layers) 1) Outer-fibrous pericardium Serous pericardium

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The heart and circulation

The Heart and Circulation

Cardiovascular System = Heart, Blood and Vessels

Lymphatic System = Lymph nodes, Organs and Vessels

The heart
The Heart

  • External Innervation

    • Vagus (parasympathetic)

    • C + T sympathetic chain ganglion

  • Pericardium (3 layers)

    • 1) Outer-fibrous pericardium

  • Serous pericardium

    • 2) parietal

    • 3) visceral (epicardium)

  • Pericardial Cavity

    • between layers of serous pericardium

    • serous fluid

    • lubricate heart while beating

  • pg 502

    Location of heart in chest
    Location of Heart in Chest

    • Oblique Position

    • Apex = Left of Midline (5th ICS), Anterior to rest of heart

    • Base (posterior surface) sits on vertebral column

    • Superior Right = 3rd Costal Cartilage, 1” right midsternum

    • Superior Left = 2nd Costal Cartilage, 1” left midsternum

    • Inferior Right = 6th Costal Cartilage, 1” right midsternum

    • Inferior Left = 5th Intercostal Space at Midclavicular line

    External features of heart
    External Features of Heart

    • Interventricular sulcus

    • Coronal/Coronary sulcus

    • Auricles of atria

    • Apex

    • Base

    • Coronary vessels

    • Ligamentum Arteriosum

    pg 504

    The great vessels and major branches
    The Great Vessels and major branches

    Aorta (from Left Ventricle)

    • Ascending

      • Coronary arteries

    • Aortic Arch

      • Brachiocephalic trunk

      • Left Common Carotid

      • Left Subclavian

    • Descending (Thoracic/Abdominal)

      • Many small branches to organs

        Pulmonary Trunk (from Rt Ventricle)

      • -2 Pulmonary Arteries into lungs

        Inferior/Superior Vena Cava

        - Coronary sinus

    Pg 504, 532

    Layers of heart
    Layers of Heart

    • Epicardium (most superficial)

      – Visceral pleura

    • Myocardium (middle layer)

      • Cardiac muscle

      • Contracts

    • Endocardium (inner)

      • Endothelium on CT

      • Lines the heart

      • Creates the valves

    pg 502

    Right heart chambers pulmonary pump
    Right Heart Chambers: Pulmonary Pump

    • Right Atrium (forms most of base of heart)

      • Receives O2-poor blood from body via IVC, SVC, Coronary sinus

      • Ventral wall = rough Pectinate muscle

      • Fossa Ovalis- on interatrial septum, remnant of Foramen Ovale

    • Right Ventricle

      • Receives O2-poor blood from right atrium through tricuspid valve

      • Pumps blood to lungs via Pulmonary Semilunar Valve in pulmonary trunk

      • Trabeculae Carnaemuscle ridgesalong ventral surface

      • Papillary Muscle-cone-shaped muscle to which chordae tendinae are anchored

      • Moderator Band-muscular band connecting anterior papillary muscle to interventricular septum

    Left heart chambers systemic pump
    Left Heart Chambers: Systemic Pump

    • Left Atrium

      • Receives O2-rich blood from 4 Pulmonary Veins

      • Pectinate Musclesline only auricle

    • Left Ventricle (forms apex of heart)

      • Receives blood from Left Atrium via bicuspid valve

      • Pumps blood into aorta via Aortic Semilunar Valve to body

      • Same structures as Rt Ventricle: Trabeculae carnae, Papillary muscles, Chordae tendinae

      • No Moderator Band

    Heart valves lub dub
    Heart Valves: Lub*-Dub**

    • *Tricuspid Valve: Right AV valve

      • 3 Cusps (flaps) made of endocardium and CT

      • Cusps anchored in Rt. Ventricle by Chordae Tendinae

      • Chordae Tendinae prevent inversion of cusps into atrium

      • Flow of blood pushes cusps open

      • When ventricle is in diastole (relaxed), cusps hang limp in ventricle

      • Ventricular contraction increases pressure and forces cusps closed

    • *Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve: Left AV valve

      • 2 cusps anchored in Left Ventricle by chordae tendinae

      • Functions same as Rt. AV valve

    • **Semilunar valves: prevents backflow in large arteries

      • Pulmonary Semilunar Valve: Right Ventricle and Pulmonary Trunk

      • Aortic Semilunar Valve: Left Ventricle and Aorta

      • 3 cusps: blood rushes past they’re flattened, as it settles they’re pushed down (valve closed)

    Heart valves
    Heart Valves

    pg 506

    Flow of blood
    Flow of Blood

    • O2-poor blood (S+I VC, Coronary Sinus) enters Rt Atrium

    • Travels through Tricuspid Valve into Rt Ventricle

    • Pumped out through Pulmonary Semilunar Valve into Pulmonary trunk (branches into Pulmonary Arteries) and to lungs

    • After circulating through lungs, O2-rich blood returns to the heart through 4 Pulmonary veins

    • The O2-rich blood enters the Left Atrium

    • Travels through Bicuspid/Mitral Valve into Left Ventricle

    • Pumped out through Aortic Semilunar Valve into Aorta to be distributed to rest of body by descending aorta and branches of aortic arch


    • Pulmonary Circuit

      • Vessels carrying blood to and from lungs

      • Pulmonary arteries and veins

    • Systemic Circuit

      • Vessels carrying blood to and from the rest of the body

      • All other vessels

    Blood flow to supply the heart muscle
    Blood Flow to Supply the Heart Muscle

    • Heart wall too thick for diffusion of nutrients

    • Rt and Lft Coronary Arteries

      • Branch from Ascending Aorta

      • Have multiple branches along heart

      • Sit in Coronary Sulcus

      • Coronary Heart Disease

    • Cardiac Veins

      • Coronary Sinus (largest)

      • Many branches feed into sinus

      • Sits in Coronary Sulcus

    Anatomy of arteries and veins
    Anatomy of Arteries and Veins

    • Tunica externa

      • Outermost layer

      • CT w/elastin and collagen

      • Protects, Strengthens, Anchors

    • Tunica media

      • Middle layer

      • Circular Smooth Muscle

      • Collagen & Elastic Fibers

      • Vaso-constriction/dilation

    • Tunica intima

      • Innermost layer

      • Endothelium

      • Minimize friction

    • Lumen

    pg 525

    Vessels of cardiovascular system arteries
    Vessels of Cardiovascular System:Arteries

    • Carry blood AWAY from heart

    • Systemic Circuit: carry O2 blood

    • Pulmonary Circuit: carry de-O2 blood

    • Walls thicker than Veins

      • Tunica media > Tunica externa

    • 3 Types

      • Conducting (elastic)

        • large, elastin, high pressure

      • Distributing (muscular)

        • medium size, to organs

      • Arterioles

        • smallest

    pg 532

    Vessels of cardiovascular system capillaries
    Vessels of Cardiovascular System:Capillaries

    • Smallest blood vessels

    • Single layer of endothelium surrounded by basal lamina

    • Deliver O2 and nutrients to cells and remove waste

    • Capillary Beds: networks of caps. Regulating amount of blood going to cells throughout tissues

    • Tendons, Ligaments poorly vascularized

    • Epithelium, cartilage has no capillaries

    Vessels of cardiovascular system veins
    Vessels of Cardiovascular System:Veins

    • Carry blood from capillaries INTO the heart

    • Systemic Circuit: O2 poor blood

    • Pulmonary Circuit: O2 –rich blood

    • Thinner walls than arteries

      • Tunica externa > tunica media, Less elastin

    • Larger lumen than arteries

    • Contain valves (made of T. intima)

    • Normal movement, Muscular contraction push blood through

    • Venules- smallest veins

    Cardiovascular blood flow
    Cardiovascular Blood Flow

    • HeartArteries(conducting-distributing) ArteriolesCapillaries of tissues

    • At Capillaries O2 is delivered and CO2 picked up

    • CapillariesVenulesVeinsHeart

    • Portal System: Special vascular circulation where blood goes through 2 capillary beds before returning to the heart to achieve 2nd function

      • (eg) Hepatic Portal System: aids digestion by picking up digestive nutrients from stomach + intestines and delivers to liver for processing/storage

      • Pick-up occurs at capillaries of stomach and intestine

      • Via Hepatic Portal Vein goes to capillaries of liver

      • Via Hepatic Vein blood goes back to heart

    Hepatic portal system

    pg 548

    Hepatic Portal System

    Vascular anastomoses
    Vascular Anastomoses

    • Vessels unite and connect

    • Arteriole Anastomoses

      • Communication between arteries

      • Joints, Abdominal Organs, Brain, Heart

    • Venous Anastomoses

      • Communication between veins

      • More common

      • (eg) back of hand

    • Vaso Vasorum

      • Tiny arteries, veins, capillaries in tunica externa of vessels to nourish them (outer half)

    Fetal circulation 2 main differences

    1) Fetus must transport blood to and from the placenta

    2) Lungs are not functional, and do not need much blood

    Fetal Circulation: 2 main differences

    • All major vessels are in place by 3rd month

    • Blood flows in same direction as in adults

    Fetal circulation blood to placenta
    Fetal Circulation: Blood to Placenta

    • Fetus must supplyplacentaw/blood

    • Umbilical Vessels:carries blood to/from placenta

      • 2 Umbilical Arteries= bring blood that contains waste & little O2 from fetus to placenta

      • 1 Umbilical Vein = brings blood w/O2 and nutrients to fetus from placenta (some goes to portal vein to process in liver)

    • Ductus Venosus= shunt taking blood returning from placenta to fetus directly to heart, largely bypassing liver

      • Too much blood for liver to handle

      • Results in highly O2 blood going to heart

    Fetal circulation bypassing the lungs
    Fetal Circulation: Bypassing the Lungs

    • Fetal Lungs are not functional and do not need large amounts of blood

    • Foramen Ovale(becomesFossa Ovalis)

      • Small hole in inter-atrial septum allows blood to flow directly from Rt. Atrium to Lft. Atrium

      • This largely bypasses the Rt. VentriclePulmonary trunk that would bring blood to lungs

    • Ductus Arteriosus (becomesLigamentum Arteriosum)

      • Shunt directs blood from Pulmonary Trunk to Aortic arch, largely bypassing lungs

    Remnants of fetal circulation
    Remnants of Fetal Circulation

    • Ligamentum teres= Round ligament

      • Remnant of the umbilical vein

      • Anterior abdominal wall

    • Ligamentum venosum

      • Remnant of ductus venosum

      • On liver’s inferior surface

    • Medial Umbilical Ligaments

      • Remnant of umbilical arteries

      • Anterior abdominal wall below navel

      • Also gives branch to urinary bladder

    The lymphatic system
    The Lymphatic System

    • Function: to collect excess tissue fluid collecting at arteriole end of capillary beds, and return leaked blood proteins to blood (maintain osmotic pressure needed to take up water into bloodstream)

    • Lymph is moved through vessels

      • Pulse of nearby arteries

      • Contraction of surrounding skeletal muscle

      • Regular movement of body (wiggling legs)

      • Muscle in Tunica Media

    • Lacteals-lymphatic capillaries w/unique function

      • In mucosa of small intestine, receive digested fat from intestine

      • Fatty lymph becomes milky = Chyle

      • Chyle goes to bloodstream

    Lymphatic system the players
    Lymphatic System…The Players:

    • Lymph- clear fluid from loose CT at capillaries

    • Lymphatic capillaries (near blood capillaries) 

    • Lymph collecting vessels (small, 3 tunicas, # valves)

    • Lymph nodes (sit along collecting vessels)-clean lymph of pathogens, they are NOT glands

    • Lymphatic trunks (convergence large collecting vessels)

      • Lumbar, intestinal, bronchomediastinal, subclavian, jugular

    • Lymphatic ducts  empty into veins of neck