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Surveillance of Personal Protective Equipment Practices in Agriculture. Kimberly Faulkner, PhD, MPH for NIOSH and the National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory. Protecting U.S. farm crop workers. Personal Protective Equipment

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surveillance of personal protective equipment practices in agriculture

Surveillance of Personal Protective Equipment Practices in Agriculture

Kimberly Faulkner, PhD, MPH

for NIOSH and the National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory

protecting u s farm crop workers
Protecting U.S. farm crop workers
  • Personal Protective Equipment
    • Assess practices and barriers to best practices over time
    • Improve practices to reduce illness
personal protective equipment
Personal protective equipment

A critical last line of defense

personal protective equipment practices
Personal protective equipment practices

It’s only effective when selected and used correctly

objectives
Objectives
  • Study planning
  • Assessment of existing knowledge and methods
  • Development and administration of a standard questionnaire/focus groups
study planning
Study Planning
  • Study scope: Pesticide handlers, practices and barriers
  • Existing data sources
  • FLYER
  • PPE regulations
study planning ppe regulations
Study Planning: PPE regulations
  • EPA WPS:
    • 40 CFR 170.170.7, 170.240(c), 170.232 (a)(2), 170.230.b.1
    • Certification of Pesticide Applicators: 40 CFR 171
    • Labeling Requirements for Pesticides: 40CFR 156
  • OSHA Standard for Agriculture: 29 CFR 1928
  • OSHA PPE standards: 29CFR 1910.132-1910.136, and 1910.138
study planning summary
Study Planning: Summary
  • Examine existing knowledge and do pre-assessment work on barriers
  • Identify partners and pool resources
  • Develop and administer questionnaire/focus groups
  • Develop and administer interventions
objectives12
Objectives
  • Study planning
  • Assessment of existing knowledge and methods
  • Development and administration of a standard questionnaire
assessing existing knowledge
Assessing existing knowledge
  • National Agricultural Workers Study (NAWS)
  • NIOSH Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risk (SENSOR)
  • Oregon OSHA Pesticide Emphasis Program
assessing existing knowledge naws
Assessing existing knowledge: NAWS
  • National sample, 1,230 interviews addressing PPE (1999-2001); 99% complete
  • PPE appropriateness not known
  • Using PPE correctly not known
assessing existing knowledge sensor
Assessing existing knowledge: SENSOR
  • Pesticide illnesses reported in 12 states
  • Only OR, WA, MI collected PPE data on at least 79% of cases (2001-05), N=178
  • PPE appropriateness not known
  • Using PPE correctly not known
assessing existing knowledge or osha
Assessing existing knowledge: OR OSHA
  • Programmed inspection data
    • Oregon PPE regulations (EPA WPS & OSHA respiratory protection standard adopted in 2007)
  • Percent of establishments in violation of PPE regulations
  • Most common regulations violated
  • Doesn’t tell us about individual practices or barriers
assessing existing knowledge or osha methods
Assessing existing knowledge: OR OSHA/Methods
  • 348 programmed first inspections (of 375) from 2000 to 2007
  • Applicable regulations: 1910.132-138, 170.240
  • 3 industries = 95% of inspections
    • fruit and tree nut farming
    • greenhouse/nursery/floriculture production,
    • other crop farming
  • 1-10 employees = 55% of inspections
assessing existing knowledge or osha summary
Assessing existing knowledge: OR OSHA/Summary
  • PPE violations are common and frequent, many are serious
    • Appropriateness of PPE for the establishment
    • Proper use of PPE for the establishment
  • Individual PPE practices and barriers are not known
objectives22
Objectives
  • Study planning
  • Assessment of existing knowledge and methods
  • Development and administration of a standard questionnaire/focus groups
develop and administer standard
Develop and administer standard
  • Questionnaires and focus groups (as appropriate)
    • Appropriate /inappropriate PPE
    • Appropriate use/misuse of PPE
develop and administer standard24
Develop and administer standard
  • Appropriate/inappropriate PPE
    • EPA registration number for pesticides
      • or manufacturers specific name of pesticide
    • Relevant environmental controls
    • Duration of exposure
    • Type(s) and material(s) of PPE worn when mixing, loading or applying pesticides
    • If respirator used: NIOSH certification number
    • If applying pesticides: methods of application
develop and administer standard25
Develop and administer standard
  • Proper use/misuse of PPE
    • proper size/fit
    • maintenance
    • inspection
    • storage
    • discarding PPE as required
    • clean area to put on and remove PPE
    • decontamination
    • For respirator users: lack of fit testing, medical evaluation, user-seal check, and proper filter replacement
develop and administer standard26
Develop and administer standard
  • PPE concerns and barriers
    • For each type of PPE and handler group: What are the concerns, barriers and solutions?
    • Handler groups
      • commercial certified applicator
      • private certified applicator (Hispanic and Non-hispanic)
      • non-certified/WPS handler (Hispanic and Non-hispanic)
      • Anabaptist/Amish communities
    • Flyers: 17 emails and 4 phone calls
develop and administer standard surveillance
Develop and administer standard: Surveillance

2012, 2013, …

2012, 2013, …

2012, 2013, …

develop and administer standard28
Develop and administer standard
  • Partnerships
    • EPA/OR OSHA
    • State Cooperative Extension services
    • State Offices of Rural Health
    • State Departments of Health/Agriculture
    • PNASH
    • Farmworker Association of Florida
develop and administer standard next steps apr 2010 apr 2011
Develop and administer standard: Next steps (Apr. 2010-Apr. 2011)
  • Expand/strengthen partnerships
  • Brainstorm with partners
    • Identify PPE concerns and barriers
    • Develop gold standard (questionnaire/focus groups)
    • Identify opportunities and challenges
    • Identifying and secure resources
develop and administer standard summary
Develop and administer standard: Summary
  • We need your help
    • How to access handlers and employers?
    • What are critical elements needed to assess practices?
    • What are the tools/methods to best be able to assess practices?
  • The benefit to you…
    • Results will inform educational and training outreach
    • Improved compliance and possibly reduced illnesses
contact me
Contact me

Kimberly Faulkner, PhD, MPH

Epidemiologist/Statistician

NIOSH/National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory

P.O. Box 18070

Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0070

Tele: 412-386-6609

Email: KFaulkner@cdc.gov