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SKIN CARE. TRAINING Alain KHAIAT, Ph. D. Vice President R&D Asia Pacific . TRAINING CONTENT. Skin physiology Cosmetic functions: mechanism ingredients used performance assessment. Skin.

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skin care

SKIN CARE

TRAINING

Alain KHAIAT, Ph. D.

Vice President R&D Asia Pacific

training content
TRAINING CONTENT
  • Skin physiology
  • Cosmetic functions:
    • mechanism
    • ingredients used
    • performance assessment
slide3
Skin
  • Is the external barrier of the body, both physical and immunological
  • Is the mirror of the state of health of the body

Skin plays an essential role both in the aesthetic and health field.

skin physiology
SKIN PHYSIOLOGY

The skin is the outer most layer of the body. It is constituted of 2 layers :

  • epidermis
  • dermis

which sit on the fat layer around the muscles.

epidermis
EPIDERMIS

The stratum corneum made essentially of dead cells is exfoliating.

The space between the cells constitutes the intercellular cement.

dermis
DERMIS

The dermis is where the collagen and elastin fibers are. These fibers are responsible for the skin structure and elasticity.

They are degraded by enzymes called collagenase and elastase which belong to the class of “Matrix Metallo Proteases” or MMP.

oil production
OIL PRODUCTION
  • Oil is produced in the sebaceous gland , production is stimulated by hormones
  • Oil flows into the hair follicle then onto the skin surface
comedones
COMEDONES
  • Whiteheads are closed comedones. The obstructed follicle prevents oil flow and provides an oil reservoir for bacterial growth. They lead to inflammation
  • Blackheads are open comedones (follicle obstruction). The color is melanin and oxidized lipids, not dirt. The content is firm and dilates the follicle, blackheads are not inflammatory
comedones12
COMEDONES

Whiteheadsor closed comedones

  • stays beneath the skin. Slightly raised, light

coloured lesion

  • Caused by build up of debris ( cells + sebum) within follicle
  • Blackheads oropen comedones
  • a whitehead becomes a blackhead when
  • it enlarges until a dark plug protrudes through the skin surface
  • * Both whiteheads and blackheads may stay on the skin for a long time.
  • * Whiteheads and Blackheads are non-inflammatory
uvb damage
UVB DAMAGE
  • UVB impact on DNA in the cell creating damages which may lead to cancer
  • P53 gene codes for a protein that allows repair of the DNA or kill the cell if repair is not possible: “sunburn cells”
uva damage
UVA DAMAGE
  • UVA acts through an oxidative stress, forming free radicals (reactive oxygen species) that will damage the DNA
  • Reactive oxygen species create damages leading to cancer
  • Pigment production is the defense mechanism
training content16
TRAINING CONTENT
  • Skin physiology
  • Cosmetic functions:
    • mechanism
    • ingredients used
    • performance assessment
cosmetics
COSMETICS

DEFINITION :

Products applied on the skin, hair, teeth or teguments in order to :

  • beautify
  • perfume
  • cleanse
  • promote attractiveness
  • alter the appearance
cosmetics functions
COSMETICS : FUNCTIONS
  • Cleansing
  • Moisturizing
  • UV protection
  • Aging - Wrinkle
  • Acne & Oily skin
  • Pigmentation
cleansing
CLEANSING
  • Soap : high pH, low rinsability, high irritation
    • Some soap have high rinsability, low irritation
  • Cream cleanser / Facial wash :
    • rinse off : detergent-based, neutral pH, irritation depends on detergent type and concentration
    • tissue off : leave on, emulsion-based, less “fresh clean feel“
rinsability
RINSABILITY
  • Measured by Fourrier Transform Infra Red or FTIR : scanning of the skin before application and after rinsing of a cleanser. The difference is representative of the quantity of product left on the skin.
  • Digital imaging with proper light allows also to evaluate rinsability
irritation
IRRITATION
  • Patch test
  • Chromameter (red color)
  • Trans epidermal water loss : TEWL
cleanser formula
CLEANSER FORMULA
  • A typical cleanser formula consists of :
    • detergent 10 - 15 %
    • foam booster 0 - 2%
    • preservative < 1 %
    • fragrance 0 - 1%
    • water Qs 100 %
cleanser formula23
CLEANSER FORMULA
  • Surfactants : usually combinations are used to enhance lathering and reduce irritation. SLS is to be avoided, it strips the skin of its lipids contributing to irritation.
  • Preservatives : allergy potential of formaldehyde donors.
  • Fragrance : known allergens (like Peru Balsam or MuskAmbrette) have been banned. It is important for the fragrance to meet IFRA guidelines
moisturizing
MOISTURIZING
  • Water, like air or light, is essential to life
  • Moisturization is a woman’s main expectation from a cosmetic product
  • Dermatologists face dry skin condition every day : physiological, pathological (ichthyosis), therapeutic (PUVA, retinoids)
where is the water
WHERE IS THE WATER ?
  • 50% is intracellular
  • 15% is extracellular
  • 5% is plasmatic
  • 30% is in the sweat glands
mechanisms of regulation
MECHANISMS OF REGULATION
  • Hydration through deeper layers
  • Loss through evaporation
  • Moisture retaining ability of the stratum corneum, dependent on :
    • Hydro Lipido Proteic film (HLP)
    • Natural Moisturizing Factor (NMF)
    • integrity of intercellular cement
hlp film
HLP FILM
  • Originates from sebum and sweat secretions
  • Composed of :
    • water - triglycerides
    • ions - cholesterol free & esterified
    • amino acids - squalene
    • urea - fatty acids

- waxes

slide28
NMF
  • Amino acids
  • Urocanic acid
  • Pyrollidone carboxylic acid : PCA
  • Electrolytes
  • Sugars
intercellular cement
INTERCELLULAR CEMENT
  • Ceramides ( sphingolipides )
  • Fatty acids ( Linoleic acid )
  • Cholesterol ( free & esters )
moisturizing ingredients
MOISTURIZING INGREDIENTS
  • Occlusive agents
  • Structural lipids
  • Hydrophilic film forming agents
  • Humectants
  • NMF
  • AHA
occlusive agents
OCCLUSIVE AGENTS
  • Vaseline, paraffin
  • Waxes of animal or plant origin
  • Some silicone oils or waxes
  • Some vegetable oil (sweet almond)
  • Some fatty esters (isopropyl myristate)
  • Fatty alcohols

older technique, often comedogenic

structural lipids
STRUCTURAL LIPIDS
  • Essential Fatty Acids (EFA : linoleic, linolenic acids)
  • Poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA : EPA, DHA)
  • Ceramides or pseudo ceramides
  • Cholesterol
hydrophilic film forming agents
HYDROPHILIC FILM FORMING AGENTS
  • GAG : glycosaminoglycans like Hyaluronic acid or chondroitin sulfates
  • Collagen
  • Proteins
  • Chitin or Chitosan
humectants
HUMECTANTS
  • Glycerin
  • Propylene Glycol or Butylene Glycol
  • Sugars
slide35
NMF
  • PCA
  • Urea (below 10 %)
  • Amino Acids or hydrolyzed protein
slide36
AHA

At low concentration (< 2 % ) AHA are moisturizing agents by creating hydrogen bonds between the protein chains.

The most common are :

  • glycolic acid
  • lactic acid
  • citric acid
  • malic acid
performance assessment
PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
  • FTIR :the ratio of amide I to amide II peaks is function of the skin hydration
  • NMR : nuclear magnetic resonance
  • TEWL : trans epidermal water loss
  • Capacitance (Corneometer®)
  • Conductance (Skicon®)
formulation
FORMULATION
  • Typically they are oil in water emulsions :
    • water
    • propylene glycol : penetration enhancer it becomes irritating above 5%
    • humectants, film forming agents, AHA, NMF
    • emulsifiers : could contribute to irritation, concentration to be kept to a minimum
    • oils, fatty esters : some are comedogenic
uv protection
UV PROTECTION

Two types of filters are used :

  • chemical
  • mineral
chemical filters
CHEMICAL FILTERS
  • Limited spectrum, highly regulated
  • Most common filters :
    • cinnamates (UVB)
    • PABA (UVB)
    • Oxybenzone (UVA)
    • Avobenzone (UVA)
mineral filters
MINERAL FILTERS
  • Broad spectrum, filtering capacity function of size, influence on product texture
  • Most common filters :
    • TiO2
    • ZnO
performance assessement
PERFORMANCE ASSESSEMENT
  • SPF measurement in vivo : it is the ratio of the minimum erythemal dose with and without protection ( relates only to UVB protection )
  • in vitro measurements :
    • Diffey method
    • spectrophotometric absorption method
aging intrinsic
AGING : INTRINSIC
  • Program theory : each cell contains a clock which control the number of multiplication
  • Error theory : occurrence of errors in the replication which eventually lead to cell death
  • Control theory : cells function is remotely controlled by secretions ( hormones )
aging extrinsic
AGING : EXTRINSIC
  • Sun : UVA / UVB / IR
  • Psycho social factors : overwork, stress
  • Dietary factors : insufficient water supply, vitamin deficiency, alcohol, smoking
  • Iatrogenic factors : corticosteroids, ionizing radiation, diuretics
  • Pathological factors : genodermatose, acrogenia
  • Hormonal factor : menopause
manifestations of skin aging
MANIFESTATIONS OF SKIN AGING
  • Epidermis :
    • reduction in cell renewal rate
    • thickening of stratum corneum
    • decrease in barrier efficiency : increase in TEWL and hyperkeratosis
    • ridges are flattened out and intercellular spaces enlarged
    • pigmentation problems : actinic lentigines
    • decrease in skin immune system
manifestations of skin aging47
MANIFESTATIONS OF SKIN AGING
  • Sebaceous glands :
    • reduction in sebum secretion (hormones influenced)
  • Sweat glands :
    • less active
  • HLP film :
    • thinning of film means less protective barrier
manifestation of skin aging
MANIFESTATION OF SKIN AGING
  • Dermis :
    • destruction of collagen and elastin fibers network
    • proteoglycans and glycoproteins are reduced
    • increase in elastin synthesis : elastosis
wrinkles
WRINKLES
  • Expression lines :
    • they are the first manifestation
    • due to constant creasing of the face
    • accentuated by environmental factors
    • they appear around the eyes (crow’s feet), the nose and mouth (naso-labial fold), forehead (frown lines)
wrinkles50
WRINKLES
  • Gravity lines :
    • skin and muscle structure become slack and droops downwards
    • subcutaneous tissues tend to sag
    • flabby cheeks, double chin, bags under the eyes and drooping eyelids
wrinkles51
WRINKLES
  • Elastosis wrinkles :
    • due to UV radiation, the epidermis is injured (free radicals), the fibroblasts in the dermis are over-active and abnormal deposits of elastin occur
anti aging prevention
ANTI AGING : PREVENTION
  • Protective agents :
    • sun protection
    • anti free radicals : SOD, Se, Si, Vit. E, Vit. C, carotenoids, flavonoids, -orizanol
  • Nourishing agents
    • vitamins : A (esters), B5 (panthenol), C, E, EFA (linoleic & linolenic acids), PUFA
anti age prevention
ANTI AGE : PREVENTION
  • Moisturizing agents
  • Metabolism activators :
    • unsaponifiable lipids (phytosterols)
    • plant extracts (Centella asiatica, Ginseng)
    • microalgae extracts
    • Bacteria, fungal or yeast extracts
anti aging prevention54
ANTI AGING : PREVENTION
  • Conditioning agents :
    • anti MMP (elastase, collagenase)
    • hyaluronic acid
    • collagen, elastin (hydrolyzed)
    • nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)
anti aging reparation
ANTI AGING : REPARATION
  • Retinol : transformed into the skin in retinoic acid, it has its positive properties without the irritation
  • AHA’s work by reducing the corneocytes cohesion, increasing desquamation (cell renewal), hydration and plasticity
  • Vitamin C
  • micro circulation activators : plant extracts
performance assessment56
PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
  • Cutaneous relief :
    • imprint techniques : micro depressionary network, profilometry
    • macrophotography : visible, UV light
    • confocal microscopy
    • biopsy
  • Cell renewal :
    • use of a dye : danzyl chloride or dihydroxy acetone (DHA)
performance assessement57
PERFORMANCE ASSESSEMENT
  • Alternative methods :
    • used to determine the activity of ingredients on molecules, cell cultures or skin replica
  • Physiological parameters :
    • hydration
    • elasticity : cutometry, twistometry, balistometry
    • pigmentation : photography, chromameter
    • vascularisation : Laser Doppler Velocimetry
slide59
ACNE
  • 95% of the population is affected at one time or another by ACNE
  • ACNE affects 85% of the teenagers:
    • 10% require medical attention: severe acne with 1% difficult to treat
    • 90% have mild acne or cosmetic acne
slide60
Puberty : period over which the

secondary sexual characters gradually

become manifest as the reproductive

system develops to full capacity and

there is rapid somatic growth.

onset of puberty in girls
Onset of puberty in girls
  • Breast development following the increase of estrogen from the ovaries
  • Menstruation
puberty and adolescence
Puberty and Adolescence
  • Adolescence is a difficult period for most people: period of changes
  • Herd bonding & sexual involvement
  • Adolescence is a particularly bad time to have skin problems, especially on the face or on the extremities
physiological changes in the skin during puberty and adolescence
Physiological changes in the skin during puberty and adolescence
  • Increase in sebum production: oily skin and hair
  • Onset of "body odor"
  • Anguish in young men when male-pattern balding begins in the teenage years
ideal skin for girls
Ideal skin for girls
  • Skin should be oil-free with no pimples or spots
  • Plenty of hair on head, but none on face, under the arms or on the legs

→ puberty makes this ideal image virtually impossible to achieve

slide66
Acne : a disorder of the pilosebaceous

unit, occurs in both sexes but is more

distressing to the women, not only

because of the cosmetic effect but

because of the frequent permanent

scarring

classification of acne
Classification of acne
  • Non-inflammatory lesions: open & closed comedones
  • Inflammatory lesions: papules, pustules, nodules, cysts
pathogenesis of acne
Pathogenesis of acne
  • Sebaceous glands hyper-activity
  • Pilosebaceous duct obstruction
  • Bacterial colonization and inflammation
slide70

Increases sebum secretion

Hyperkeratinization

The cause of acne (1)

The effect of Androgen hormones

I’m Androgen

slide71

The cause of acne (2)

The effect of Propionobacterium acnes

We love

sebum

Hydrolyzes sebum

Free fatty acids

Inflammatory acne

acne treatment
ACNE TREATMENT
  • Drugs
  • Dermatological Procedures
  • Cosmetics

and/or

  • Squeeze the pimple
dermatological procedure
DERMATOLOGICAL PROCEDURE
  • Peeling with drying and keratolytic agents : sulfur, salicylic acid, resorcinol, benzoyl peroxide
cosmetics74
COSMETICS
  • Traditionally the anti-acne approach has used drying keratolytic ingredients:
    • Benzoyl peroxide (5 or 10%)
    • Salicylic acid (0.5 or 2%)
    • Sulfur (~2%)
oily skin
OILY SKIN

Ingredients usually used to reduce shine :

  • clay (bentonite)
  • talc
  • Kaolin

These ingredients will increase oil production

Ingredients used to control oil secretion:

  • Soy/Wheat protein
  • Cedarwood
oily skin76
OILY SKIN

Efficacy is measured by :

  • Sebumeter® : measure of the absorbance of a tape
  • Sebutape®
  • removal of lipids and determination of quantity
pigmentation
PIGMENTATION
  • Melanins are the result of the transformation of Tyrosine into DOPA then Dopaquinone by Tyrosinase in the melanocyte.
  • Melanins are transferred from the melanocyte to the keratinocyte layers
slide78

Pigmentation Formation Mechanism

UV

1

  • Variety of Causes
  • Variety of Responses

2

Irritation

Inflammatory Response

KERATINOCYTE

(Epidermis)

3

Hormone

MELANOCYTE

(Basal Layer)

Melanin

Tyrosine

Melanosome

FIBROBLAST

Tyrosinase

Dermis

pigmentation79
PIGMENTATION

Ingredients used to decrease pigmentation :

  • hydroquinone : effective but not safe
  • ascorbic acid derivatives
  • plant extracts : Kojic acid, arbutin, Licorice, Centella, Bayberry extract

Except for Hydroquinone, the skin lightening effect is only visible after several weeks.

pigmentation80
PIGMENTATION
  • Efficacy is measured by :
    • Chromameter® : L measure
    • Mexameter® : evaluation of melanin and redness
    • Photography : visible, UV with data analysis