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Production of Strawberries in Florida

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Production of Strawberries in Florida. Monica Cooper. Field Preparation. Clear all debris Construct raised beds Fumigate 2 weeks later, set transplants (15-16 in.) Transplant selection early season yield 3 varieties/field ‘Sweet Charlie’ & ‘Camarosa’.

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field preparation
Field Preparation
  • Clear all debris
  • Construct raised beds
  • Fumigate
  • 2 weeks later, set transplants (15-16 in.)
  • Transplant selectionearly season yield
  • 3 varieties/field
  • ‘Sweet Charlie’ & ‘Camarosa’
the pathogens
The Pathogens
  • Botrytis cinerea
  • Colletotrichum acutatum
  • Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
  • Colletotrichum fragariae
  • Xanthomonas fragariae
  • Sphaerotheca macularis
gray mold
Gray mold
  • Botrytis cinerea
  • Small, firm, light brown spots
  • Fruit eventually covered with gray mass of mycelium
  • Invades blossoms, then infects maturing fruit
  • Postharvest
management
Management
  • Leaf sanitation & plant spacing
  • Cultivars with smaller calyxes
  • Partially resistant cultivars
  • Biological controls
  • Treat transplants
  • Broad spectrum fungicide on weekly basis
  • Iprodione during peak bloom periods
slide8
Postharvest:
  • Avoid overripe or damaged fruit
  • Avoid injury
  • Cool fruit
  • Maintain in CO2 rich atmosphere
anthracnose fruit rot
Anthracnose fruit rot
  • Colletotrichum acutatum
  • Round, firm, sunken lesions on fruit
  • Pink, orange, salmon-colored spore masses
  • Favored by warm temperatures & rainfall
  • May cause serious losses in nursery
management practices
Management practices
  • Avoidance
  • Resistance
  • Use minimal amounts of Nitrogen
  • Remove infected fruit from field
  • Captan or Thiram (protectant)
  • Quadris (azoxystrobin)
anthracnose crown rot
Anthracnose crown rot
  • Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
  • Colletotrichum fragariae
  • Wilting & death
  • Temperature dependent
  • Warm weather & frequent rainfall
  • Reddish brown rot or streaking in the tissue of the crown
management1
Management
  • Preventative
  • End of season removal of inoculum
  • Resistant cultivars
  • Benlate (benomyl)
  • Topsin M (thiophanate-methyl)
angular leaf spot
Angular leaf spot
  • Xanthomonas fragariae
  • Angular, water soaked leaf spots
  • Translucent lesions
  • Very resistant to desiccation
  • May become systemic
angular leaf spot1
Angular leaf spot
  • Prevention
  • No resistant commercial cultivars
  • Copper containing bactericides
sphaerotheca macularis
Sphaerotheca macularis
  • Powdery mildew
  • White, web-like growth
  • Undersides of leaves
  • Cool
  • High humidity
  • Severe in glasshouses & tunnels
management2
Management
  • Clean stock
  • Destroy leaves on which pathogen overseasons
  • Protectant fungicide
  • Resistant varieties (‘Sweet Charlie’)
the arthropod pests
The Arthropod Pests
  • Twospotted spider mite
  • Armyworms
  • Thrips
  • Field cricket
  • Sap beetle
tetranychus urticae
Tetranychus urticae
  • 88% of growers
  • Warm, spring weather
  • Reduce yield
  • Blooms and developing fruit
spider mite
Spider mite
  • Clean transplants
  • Beneficial mites (30% of growers)
  • Miticides
    • undersides of leaves
fall southern armyworms
Fall & Southern Armyworms
  • Spodoptera fruqiperda
  • Spodoptera eridania
  • Larvae feed on fruit & leaves
  • Prefer young, developing leaves
  • Nocturnal
management practices1
Management practices
  • MonitoringSept. through Dec.
  • Bacillus thuringiensis
  • Methomyl
flower thrips
Flower thrips
  • Frankliniella cephalica
  • Wind-borne
  • Rasp flowers
  • Mistaken for powdery mildew, spray burn damage
field cricket
Field cricket
  • Gryllus firmus & G. rubens
  • 2-5 months after beds covered
  • Nymphs & adults feed on crowns & scrape seeds from green fruits
slide26
Scouting
  • Insecticides
sap beetle
Sap beetle
  • Lobiopa insularis
  • Minor concern
  • Overripe, damaged berries
  • Disseminate fruit rot pathogens
  • Warm weather
management3
Management
  • Maintain sound fruit
  • Don’t leave overripe fruit in field
  • Harvest all areas of field
  • Scout
  • Insecticides, only in case of population explosion
beneficial arthropods
Beneficial Arthropods
  • Predaceous mite
  • Sixspotted thrips
  • Lady beetle larva
  • Minute pirate bug larva
  • Hover fly
phytoseiulus persimilis
Phytoseiulus persimilis
  • Orange, shiny
  • Faster than spider mites
  • Specialized predator of webspinning spider mites
  • Careful in choice of insecticides
sixspotted thrips
Sixspotted thrips
  • Feeds on mites, other small arthropods
  • 3 dark spots on each forewing
minute pirate bug larva
Minute pirate bug larva
  • Orius insidiosus
  • Thrips, mites, mite eggs, aphids
hover fly
Hover fly
  • Flower fly, syrphid fly
  • Mistaken for fruit fly
  • Distinguished by ability to hover & fly backwards
  • Adultpollinators
  • Larvaepredaceous on aphid
insecticides miticides
Methyl bromide

Methomyl (Lannate)

Armyworm

65-80% acreage

3-5.2 times/season

Fenbutatin-oxide

Vendex

Mite

31-61% acreage

1.7-4.8 times/season

Abamectin (Agri-Mek)

Mite

68-83% of acreage

2.5-3.4 times/season

Diazinon

Armyworm

24-35% of acreage

2.5-3.4 times/season

Naled (Dibrom)

15% acreage

2.2-3.1 times/season

Insecticides & Miticides
more chemicals
More chemicals
  • Carbaryl (Sevin)
    • 11% of acreage
    • 2.6 times/season
  • Bacillus thuringiensis
    • When populations of worms low
    • 57-65% of acreage
    • 4.2-5.2 times/season
weeds
Several grasses & broadleaf weeds

Managed mainly by fumigation & plastic mulch

Weeds problem in:

Row middles

Planting holes

Perimeter of field

Nutsedge:

Most troublesome

Not managed by plastic mulch

Weeds
weed management
Weed management
  • Cultivation of row middles
  • Hand weeding
  • Plastic mulches
  • Cover crops, sods, living mulches
  • Fallowing
  • Herbicides
    • Applied to row middles
    • Rotate herbicides due to changing weed population over 6-7 month season
herbicides
Herbicides
  • Paraquat (Gramoxone)
    • Postemergence
    • Annual broadleaf & grasses
    • Top kill of perennials
    • Non-selective, need shield to protect berries
    • 82-98% of acreage, 1.7-1.9 applications/season
  • Napropamide (Devrinol)
    • Annual grasses & broadleaf weeds
    • Not effective on established weeds
    • Not from bloom to harvest
    • 25% of acreage, 1.23 applications/season
nematodes
Sting

Belonolaimus longicaudatus

Root knot

Meloidogyne spp.

Foliar

Aphelenchoides sp.

Make plants more susceptible to:

Drought

Salt damage

Other pathogens

Fusarium sp.

Pythium sp.

Nematodes
sting nematode
Sting nematode
  • Ectoparasite
  • Most damaging:
    • Nurseries
    • Transplants
  • Sandy soil
  • 25-30oC
slide41
Symptoms:
    • Well defined borders
    • Dead transplants
    • Stunting, decline, dormancy
    • Browning of leaf edges
  • On roots:
    • Overall, coarse appearance
    • Tips injured
    • No new growth
    • Lack of feeder roots
nematodes1
Sampling

At end of growing season

When soil damp, not soggy or dry

10-20 samples at depth of 6-10 inches

Management practices:

Preplant or postharvest

Clean stock

Destroy crop at end of season

Fallowing with frequent tillage

Cover crop

Crop rotation

Chemicalmost common

Nematodes
methyl bromide
Methyl bromide
  • January 1, 2005
  • Soil fumigant
  • Controls
    • Weeds
    • Nematodes
    • soil-borne pathogens & insects
  • Telone C-17 or C-35 with Devrinol
  • Telone EC
  • Mulches, cover crops
tunnel system
Tunnel system
  • Decrease disease
  • Increase early season yields
  • Where water is limiting factor
  • ‘Sweet Charlie’