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More than 1.2 million volunteer partners of Rotary Clubs lend their time and talents in tune with the Rotarian attitude of “Contributing before thinking of oneself” The international growth of Rotary Present in 207 countries. Rotary in Brazil 38 Districts District 4530 – 65 clubs

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slide1

More than 1.2 million volunteer partners of Rotary Clubs lend their time and talents in tune with the Rotarian attitude of “Contributing before thinking of oneself”

slide2

The international growth of Rotary

Present in 207 countries.

slide3

Rotary in Brazil

38 Districts

District 4530 – 65 clubs

slide4

Rotary Slogan for 2008-9

“In the latest years the presidents of RI have chosen to continue the emphases of their predecessors, focusing on water-respectful projects, hunger mitigation, health-promotion and alphabetization”.

“The motto for 2008-09 will be: “Let us make our dreams come true. Food and water, health and education, long and fulfilled lives – these are children’s dreams”.

“In 2008-09, I shall propose to take children to the top of our attentions, they being the most precious resource of humanity”. Dong Kurn Lee

slide5

Analyzing Human Coexistence

1948: Universal Declaration of Human Rights – UN

1990 – 2015 – Objectives of the Millenium (UN): 8 ways to change the world.

slide6

Analyzing Human Coexistence

Capitalism – Adam Smith (1723-1790)

“At first sight Adam Smith appears just like a nice Scottish professor of moral philosophy. Modest and absent-minded, a kind scholar with dynamite flowing from his pen.

He was a professor of Logics and Moral Philosophy at the University of Glasgow.

He wrote:

“A Theory on Moral Sentiments – 1759”.

“An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations” – 1776.

Third revised edition of  “The Wealth of Nations” – 1784.

slide7

Analyzing Human Coexistence

Socialism – Karl Marx – 1818-1883

German economist and philosopher

He wrote:

1867 – First volume of his masterpiece, “The Capital”.

The second and third volumes of his book were published by his friend

Engels in 1885 and 1894.

slide8

Analyzing Human Coexistence

Monetarism – John Maynard Keynes

- 1883-1946 – Keynesian Theory.

1936 – “A General Theory on Labor, Interest and

Currency” – Keynes

1944 – International Conference of Bretton Woods;

slide9

Thoughts

Capitalism – Adam Smith – 1776

Quotes:

“It is, therefore, very presumptuous and impertinent that kings and ministers try to regulate the economy of private citizens by restricting their expenses, either issuing sumptuary laws or prohibiting the importation of luxurious foreign products. They are always, without exception, the greatest spenders in society. They must manage their own expenses and let private citizens manage their own. If their extravagance does not ruin the kingdom, it is not that of their subjects that will do it.”

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Thoughts

“The statesman who intends to determine how people should spend their capital, will be not only overburdening himself with an unnecessary care, but also incorporating an authority that could never be safely trusted to a single person, nor to any counsel or senate. Such authority will be specially dangerous in the hands of a man senseless and presumptuous enough to feel fit to exercise it.”

“Each person, as the stoics used to say, must be first and foremost left to their own care; and each person is certainly, under all points of view, more fit and capable to take care of their self than any other person” – “A Theory on Moral Feelings”.

In this context, Smith referred to the famous invisible hand that makes the pursuit for individual interests to be, in the end, beneficial to all.

slide11

Thoughts

Socialism – Karl Marx – 1890

Quotes:

“The value of the work force is composed of two elements, one of which is purely physical…”

“Its minimal limit is determined by the physical element, that is – to keep alive and reproduce. To perpetuate their physical existence, the working class must obtain those  basic articles absolutely indispensable for themselves and their offspring.”

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Thoughts

“When workers sell their labor – and workers are forced to do it in the current regime – they grant capitalists the right to use that force, but under certain rational limits. They sell their workmanship to be kept safe and sound, except for natural wear and tear, but not to be destroyed.”

“Any man who has no free time in his life, except for the purely physical interruptions for sleeping, eating, etc, is less than a beast of burden. He becomes a simple machine, physically destroyed and spiritually animalized to produce riches for others.”

slide13

Thoughts

Monetarism – John Maynard Keynes – 1936 – Keynesian Theory

“It is thus necessary to endow the State with effective instruments of economic policy, that allow it to regulate the interest rate so as to keep it below the “marginal efficiency of capital”, in order to stimulate consumption through the expansion of public expenditure and to expand investment through public loans that will absorb idle resources.”

slide14

Ideological Confrontation

“A theory focused on the stability of governmental resources. Rich Governments, poor societies.”

MONETARISM

“To each one according to their ability”.

 “Total freedom to produce and consume results in productive full employment.

CAPITALISM

“To each one according to their need”.

“The payment to the labor force must be enough to compensate the wear and tear of this force.”

SOCIALISM

slide15

In search of Solutions

Economics and government are like water and oil, they do not mix. Economics is a science where the actors are regulated by a natural law of supply and demand, whereas government is an institution that works under the conduction of human will.”

- The growth of the executive power and the enormous amount of financial resources in the hands of the State, to be allocated by acts of human will, stimulates the greed of unscrupulous politicians who search power at any cost, “not disdaining, in some cases, to establish joint ventures with cheating, fraud and corruption”, in Vilfredo Pareto’s words.

slide16

In search of Solutions

  • Discourses are about democracy, but the methods employed lead, inevitably, to filling the coffers of the State. This paradox transformed the democratic regime “Of the people, by the people and for the people” into the autocratic rule of a regime “for the people”, in which the destiny of the ruled depends on the virtue of their rulers.
  • - Regretting serves no purpose, because, according to Karl Marx, “Philosophers limited themselves to interpreting the world, but it is necessary to transform it.”
  • A mistake is not a tragedy. The real tragedy consists in
  • not learning from mistakes.
slide17

In search of Solutions

Capitalism and Socialism are two dated theories that did not work in the history of Mankind.

The world assists nowadays, perplexed and impotent, the supremacy and domination of the bureaucratic class, because the practical evolution of the capitalist and socialist systems inevitably converges to a totalitarian regime. That is to say, inequality of opportunities in the rules of human coexistence has been generating the most terrible process of domination and human serfdom: the dictatorship of bureaucrats.

slide18

The role of the state in the economy stems exclusively from the need to stimulate or subsidize the sectors of agriculture, health and education, that cannot operate by themselves.

A system of human coexistence that does not offer equal opportunities to all is incompatible with the market economy.

No society can develop without human energy, nutrition, health and education.

Human labor is a process of transformation of human energy into physical or intellectual energy – human energy is a pre-condition for this transformation to happen, not a payment for the work done.

slide19

In search of Solutions

- Nutrition and health are independent from human will. They are interdependent and non-cumulative needs. In other words, no one feels hungry or falls ill because they wish. It is of no use to purvey education if nutrition and health are not assured. There is an optimal point that does not permit their accumulation. One must search for an equality of opportunities and not just act on the effects brought about by inequality. We will never render the weak stronger by making the strong weaker, nor make the poor richer by impoverishing the rich.

Ethics must always prevail in human attitudes and the goals can never justify the means.

Private initiative, operating in a competitive market with full productive employment, is a superior model for the production of goods and services.

slide20

Humanism

The productive process, that is, workers and entrepreneurs, are directly responsible for nutrition, health and education in the social nucleus that depends on the production of goods and services, available for free market prices. Government reduces its taxes in the amount corresponding to the cost of these new responsibilities of the productive process.

- “To each one according to their physiological needs and later according to their ability”.

slide21

Peace and Conflict Resolution

Rotarian Centers offer, to those who receive Rotary Scholarships for World Peace, the opportunity to obtain their Master degrees in the area of conflict resolution, international affairs, studies on peace and other related areas.

- Every year, up to 60 scholarships are offered for study in six different Rotarian Centers, which operate in partnership with seven of the most prestigious universities in the world.

“Peace cannot be maintained by force. It can only be reached by understanding”. Albert Einstein.

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Peace and Conflict Resolution

  • “Whatever the concept one has of democracy, the destiny of the ruled must never depend on the virtue of their rulers.”    
  • Criteria for the Qualification of Democracy:
  • Universal vote 
  • Free Press 
  • Decentralization of the economic power of governments.
slide23

Peace and Conflict Resolution

When “We, the People”, are able to freely decide where to allocate our savings, the arms race will become unfeasible.

- As a matter of fact, the humanist regime, by equaling opportunities for all, allows wealth and forbids poverty.

- The humanist regime envisions, most of all, the human being and the development of all of our potentials. It is based on a philosophical conception very close to that in which us, human beings, were placed on this planet: in a situation where there was no disease, hunger, misery, illiteracy or capital accumulation. Nature granted us everything freely. From nature we got nourishment, medicines and knowledge. We observed it to produce goods and services for ourselves, in total freedom to create and reproduce.

- Before it is too late, we need to return to our origins, in order to deserve our best future.

slide24

Conclusion

“Work is indispensable, because a world of passive creatures would be sad and with no beauty. We must give a human meaning to our buildings. When love for money and success tend to drive us blind, let us make pauses to behold the lilies in the fields and the birds in the sky”. (ÉricoVerissimo)

“We well know that Rotary does not have the power of governments; it does not have the force of armies; it does not have the wealth of great corporations; it does not even have the mystic spell of religions that promise eternal life. But it has the faith and enthusiasm of men and women: leaders and volunteers ready to offer something in favor of a better world, where the widely desired World Peace will prevail!” (Paulo Viriato Correa da Costa, President of Rotary International, 1990-91).