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MEASURING POLICE EFFECTIVENESS. Bill Bieck. Measuring Police Effectiveness. Implementing Neighborhood-Oriented Policing: The Houston Experience-- Where to start? Political Context Facilitating Change Executive Sessions + Reports + Implementation Reports

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measuring police effectiveness1
Measuring Police Effectiveness
  • Implementing Neighborhood-Oriented Policing: The Houston Experience--Where to start?
    • Political Context
    • Facilitating Change
      • Executive Sessions + Reports + Implementation Reports
      • Department Command Staff Meetings (Assistant Chiefs): change orientation
      • Command Meetings (Assistant Chief and Captains): change orientation.
developmental legacy
Developmental Legacy
  • Kansas City Interactive Patrol Program
  • Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment
  • Kansas City Directed Patrol Program (introduction of “tele-serve”)
  • Kansas City Response Time Analysis Study
  • San Diego One/Two Officer Car Study
  • San Diego Field Interrogation Study
  • San Diego Community-Oriented Policing (COP) Program
  • New Haven directed-Deterrent Patrol Study
  • Rand Study of Criminal Investigations
developmental legacy cont
Developmental Legacy - Cont.
  • Forensic Evaluation of Police Crime Labs
  • Wilmington’s Split Force Program
  • Nashville’s Helicopter Patrol Study
  • Nashville’s Replication of Kansas City’s Preventive Patrol Experiment
  • Flint, Michigan’s Foot Patrol Program
  • Newark’s Foot Patrol Program
  • Newport News, Virginia’s, Problem-Oriented Policing Study (New Briarfield)
  • Washington Metropolitan Police Dept’s Repeat Offender Program (ROP)
developmental legacy cont1
Developmental Legacy - Cont.
  • Differential Police Response Experiment (Garden Grove, Toledo, and Greenville)
  • Patrol Emphasis Program (LEAA)
  • Integrated Criminal Apprehension Program (LEAA)
  • Managing Patrol Operations (MPO)
  • Managing Criminal Investigations (MCI)
  • Serious, Habitual (Juvenile) Offender Comprehensive Action Program (SHOCAP/LEAA)
  • Minneapolis’ Study regarding Domestic Violence.
the patrol function beat design reconfiguration
The Patrol Function: Beat Design/Reconfiguration
  • Districts, beats, zones, divisions, sectors, commands, car territories, etc.: What’s the purpose of a beat, zone, district, division, etc.?
    • MANAGEABLE area, crime suppression and accountability; traffic analysis, ability to impact problems.
  • Issues regarding beat design/reconfiguration
    • Type(s) of area
    • Beat, etc., boundaries
the patrol function staffing deployment resource allocation
The Patrol Function: Staffing/Deployment/Resource Allocation
  • Staffing relief factor (SRF)
  • Work demands (temporal) analysis
  • Cross-beat/sector dispatches
  • Repeat location analysis
  • One-two officer units
  • “Rovers”
  • Time management
  • Territorial imperative
  • “GBs” and “wolfpacks”
operations patrol
Operations: Patrol
  • Types of patrol: What’s the objective? What do you want to accomplish? Traditional, random, routine, conventional patrol vis-à-vis directed patrol (DP) and self-directed activities (SDAs)
  • “Snoopervision,” supervision, or management: Who Works for whom?
operations patrol cont
Operations: Patrol - Cont.
  • Administrative: rules, regulations, policies, and special operating procedures
  • Operations: Utilization of crime analysis information for directed patrol planning and implementations and evaluation; safety and tactical training, problem identification, verification, and process resolution.
  • Interpersonal communications
  • Career and professional development and performance evaluations.
operations dispatch and emergency communications
Operations: Dispatch and Emergency Communications
  • Call intake screening
  • Call prioritization
  • Call diversion
  • Evaluation
    • Misclassification
    • Clearance coding
  • Measuring police response time
    • Response-related arrests
    • Witness availability, citizen injury, citizen satisfaction
operations managing criminal investigations mci
Operations: Managing Criminal Investigations (MCI)
  • Case intake and administrative screening/sorting to determine assignment and establish case priorities (including review of early case closure recommendations)
  • Assignment
    • objective/rationale/criteria/ PURPOSE regarding assignment, e.g., individual, team, “kickback,” patrol, or detective(s)
    • Is rationale regarding assignment antithetical to objective desired?
    • Is it “take a number” like a New York deli?
operations managing criminal investigations mci cont
Operations: Managing Criminal Investigations (MCI) - Cont.
  • The “GET” system.
  • Review (relative to case priority) and structured feedback regarding progress and impediments.
  • Evaluation for possible reassignment, suspension, case preparation for filing, trial, etc.
  • Prosecutorial liaison
  • Early case closure
crime analysis goals
Crime Analysis Goals
  • Types of crime analysis (including brief historicity)
    • Tactical
    • Link
    • Taxonomical (cold, unsolved cases); coroner’s office
    • Trend/exception, etc.
    • Hot sheet
    • Wanted persons
    • Known offenders
crime analysis goals cont
Crime Analysis Goals - Cont.
  • Solvability
    • Elements
    • Quantifying
  • Evaluation
    • Tactical action plans (TAPS)
    • “Trash-can” surveys
crime analysis goals cont1
Crime Analysis Goals - Cont.
  • Products
    • Crime analysis information bulletin
    • Crime analysis intelligence bulletin
    • Crime analysis pattern alert bulletin
    • Special bulletins regarding theft of unique property, special events, fugitives, etc.
    • Hot sheets
    • Field interview recaps
    • Exception reports
operations analysis
Operations Analysis
  • Staffing/deployment
  • Beat design and reconfiguration
  • Where did the offense occur?
  • Where were officers dispatched?
  • Operations Calendar
traffic analysis
Traffic Analysis
  • Minor property damage/no injury
  • Minor property damage/minor injury
  • Major property/minor injury
  • Major property/injury with hospital transport with treatment and release
  • Serious injury with hospital stay required
  • Autos collision fatality
  • Pedestrian (minor injury, serious injury, fatality)
crime analysis administration
Crime Analysis Administration
  • Offense form and format
  • State/regional considerations
  • Standardized offense report to identify state-wide patterns/problems
data needs and elements internal
Data Needs and Elements: Internal
  • Offense reports and investigative supplements
  • Arrest/blotter/booking records
  • Dispatch records
  • Traffic accident reports and citations
  • Field interview, i.e., investigation/interrogation/ observation reports
  • Confidential informants
  • Sworn and civilian “in-house” personnel, e.g., patrol officers, records clerks, criminalists, crime analysts, detectives, etc.
data needs and elements external
Data Needs and Elements: External
  • NCIC
  • TCIC
  • Regional PIN
  • Intelligence networks and data banks
  • Crime Stoppers
  • Other local law enforcement including county, state, and federal agencies.
  • Local medical examiner(s) and personnel from the district attorney’s office; jail and correctional employees
data needs and elements external cont
Data Needs and Elements: External - Cont.
  • Tracking court “no-shows”
  • Bail bondsmen
  • Citizens and citizen groups
centralized and decentralized crime analysis operations
Centralized and Decentralized Crime Analysis Operations
  • Centralized, City Wide: Suspect specialists and area generalists
  • Decentralized, Neighborhood: Area specialists and suspect generalists
tactical crime analysis process
Tactical Crime Analysis Process
  • Collection
  • Analysis
  • Collation
    • serial crime matrix
    • external and extraneous source materials
  • Synthesis
  • Dissemination
  • Feedback and evaluation
crime analysis to support community oriented policing
Crime Analysis to Support Community-Oriented Policing
  • Cultivating positive relationships through open communications, information, and reciprocity, e.g., “PIP,” etc.
  • Identifying, defining, and verifying problems; constructing a process (e.g., contracts)
crime analysis to support community oriented policing cont
Crime Analysis to Support Community-Oriented Policing -Cont.
  • Articulating rules, roles, and responsibilities in working with citizens and citizen groups to obtain credible and conscientious involvement and participation
    • What citizens, and what groups?
crime analysis to support community oriented policing cont1
Crime Analysis to Support Community-Oriented Policing -Cont.
    • What’s in “it” for them? Why should citizens work with local authorities?
      • Citizens police academy
      • Citizens graduate police academy
      • The role of the Field Training Officer (FTO) program in relationship to Community-Problem and Neighborhood-Oriented policing efforts
  • Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)
tactical operations based on crime analysis
Tactical Operations based on Crime Analysis
  • Electronic and physical surveillance
  • Target hardening
  • Channeling
  • Saturation
  • Stake-outs
  • Zero-tolerance
  • Directed patrol
  • Intelligence monitoring
  • Covert patrol
  • Decoy operations
tactical operations based on crime analysis cont
Tactical Operations based on Crime Analysis -Cont.
  • TRAP
    • Design
    • Implementation
    • Simulation
    • Evaluation
  • “Auto-Dial,” the Oxnard Model
crimes against children
Crimes Against Children
  • Identify external threats, i.e., possible suspects that prey on children
    • Parole records
    • Probation records
    • Mechanism to identify and tract chronic, repeat sexual offenders
  • Problematic families
    • Runaways
    • Throw-a-ways
crimes against children cont
Crimes Against Children -Cont.
  • Child exploitation
    • Prostitution
    • Adult clubs
    • Pornography
intra inter multi agency and community support and organization
Intra/inter/multi-Agency and Community Support and Organization
  • Law enforcement INTRA-AGENCIES
  • Community INTER-AGENCIES
    • Courts (i.e., criminal, juvenile, family, etc.)
    • Prosecutors
    • Probation, parole, corrections
    • Welfare and health care, including youth/juvenile services, Child Protective Services (CPS), foster homes, Day Care, etc.
intra inter multi agency and community support and organization cont
Intra/inter/multi-Agency and Community Support and Organization -Cont.
  • Schools
  • Medical community (ER) and the medical examiner
  • Sheriff’s Office/Police Department
  • Victim’s services, e.g., rape crisis, etc.
  • ___________________________