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    1. Introduction to Vegetable Seed Production and Supply in Near East North Africa (NENA) Region Prof. Dr. Ayman Abou-Hadid Chairman, Dept of Horticulture, Ain Shams University, Director, Arid land research institute, EGYPT

    2. Vegetable Production in NENA Region

    3. WANA Population Population in North Africa and west Asia: 667 M (2002) 877 M (2015) 1,099 M (2030)

    4. Agricultural GDP per economically active person in agriculture in most of the countries in WANA region (except some oil- rich countries, is in the range between 500 and 2500 US$, which is substantially low compared to the developed countries where it is over 20,000 US$.

    5. Undernourished population in WANA (2000 2002)

    6. Natural resources endangered, Share of agriculture in water use

    7. Highest value agricultural production by commodity groups

    8. Share of food in total imports.

    9. Net trade in food

    17. Lower quality of seeds used in vegetable cultivation in open field on the regional level The use of cultivars that were bread for other climatic regions and/or to be cultivated in different soils or planting dates It is important to use high quality seeds that are specially developed for the region

    18. Characteristics of vegetable seed production compared to field crops Yields of vegetables are variable due to technologies used. Need special climate, some are biennial Seeds are smaller in size, reflects on cost. Very large number of crops and varieties Seed storage is easier and more feasible F1 hybrids are so important in vegetables

    19. Assessment of Vegetable Seed Production According to FAO , only Turkey and Egypt have plans for organized vegetable seed production and quality control The activities related to variety improvement, evaluation and maintenance were left to governmental organizations

    20. Successful Vegetable Seed Production Should Depend on Long term breeding trails, Involvement of scientists with experience, Allocation of suitable funding

    21. International Vegetable seed trade Easy and steady movement of seed worldwide Established network of vegetable seed traders, distributors and recipients. Mostly dependant on Expensive F1 hybrids The production of Vegetable seeds is globalized

    22. Two Sources of Seeds: High quality seeds especially for protected cultivation, potato and strawberry. (Imported) Lower in quality seeds for open field production. (Local)

    23. It is not really recommended to substitute totally the local cultivars with imported seeds Many of the local varieties and cultivars although they are lower in productivity Have special taste Resistance to diseases Or resistant to abiotic stresses

    24. Efforts to Improve the Local Varieties Could Result in Higher Yield While Keeping the Adaptability to Local Conditions. It Is Suggested Therefore to Improve the Local and Regional Breeding Programs

    25. Relative Cash Value for Seeds The price of one kilogram of non-hybrid cucumber seeds is about US$ 60 80 The price of one gram of hybrid cucumber seed is US$ 3 3.6 (US$ 3000 3600 for one kg)

    26. Identification of Constraints for National/regional Vegetable Crop Seed Production and Supply

    27. In relation to production of breeder seed: the plant breeders do not have enough support financially to conduct the tedious, long term breeding experiments and work

    28. There is a severe deficit in technical personnel to support successful breeding programs

    29. The unavailability of the tools and equipment required for the production of seeds and the proper storage facilities to keep the produced seeds in viable conditions

    30. The difficulty in exchanging plant materials between countries to be introduced in breeding programs. Some of these factors are related to the unsuitable quarantine regulations and others are related to the lake of international contacts

    31. The breeding fields in many cases are not standardized, the segregation distances are not enough to prevent the mechanical mix up of seeds or the cross pollination among varieties. The end result is the production of lower quality of seeds

    32. Unavailability of funds to carry out a sustainable breeding program although the funds for research in general is available. The participation of private sector in seed industries was seriously limited in the last decades

    33. The major seed production companies are hesitant in investing for seed industry in the region. This is mainly due to the political and economical instability in many cases

    34. Some of the national governments tended to establish seed production facilities. The capacity of such facilities is quite limited and the quality of operation is generally below the international standards

    35. Most of the countries were slow in establishing the national germplasm banks and/or central facilities for plant resources collection. It is only in the recent years that some of the countries have established such facilities, or started the efforts to do so

    36. The local seed storage facilities are not suitable, resulting in reduction of seed qualities in the local markets and the domination of the imported seeds over a large sector of horticultural crops especially vegetable hybrid seeds

    37. The agricultural quarantine regulations are not generally strictly applied. The result is importation of varieties and hybrids of unknown origin. This in turn resulted in the deterioration of many local varieties

    38. The difficulty in registration of new varieties, in time (three years to be accepted as a new variety) and cost as well. This inhibited to a large extent the new local varieties from being recognized in the local markets

    39. Financial Support Technical personnel Tools and equipment Exchanging plant materials Breeding fields specifications Sustainable Breeding Program Political and Economical Instability Matching with International Standards National Germplasm Banks Seed Storage Facilities are not Suitable The Agricultural Quarantine Regulations Registration of New Varieties: Time and Cost

    40. Vegetable production in the NENA Vegetable seed is a major component Local vrs Imported Seeds Governmental organizations Cost of vegetable hybrid seed The projects related to seed production National capacity for seed production Small companies Private sector Reasonable strategies for developing seed production.

    41. Thank you