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An Overview of Building Fire and Smoke Control Systems Design and Commissioning

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An Overview of Building Fire and Smoke Control Systems Design and Commissioning. presented to Arkansas ASHRAE – ASHRAE Chapter 62 by Steve Williams, P.E. | Brian Olsen, P.E. Introduction - General. Over 35 years of design experience Support staff of 350 Local Office

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An Overview of Building Fire andSmoke Control Systems Design and Commissioning

presented to

Arkansas ASHRAE – ASHRAE Chapter 62by

Steve Williams, P.E. | Brian Olsen, P.E.

introduction general
Introduction - General
  • Over 35 years of design experience
  • Support staff of 350
  • Local Office
  • Wide variety of project types
  • #1 Retail firm in U.S.
  • (based on number of projects and square footage
  • Retail Construction Magazine-2006)
  • Specialty division of Henderson Engineers, Inc.
  • Staff of 30 fire protection professionals
  • Nationwide exposure
  • Significant fire alarm, suppression and
  • code consulting experience

HEI - Lowell

HEI – Kansas City

introduction presentation overview
Introduction – Presentation Overview
  • Overview of Smoke Control
    • Engineered Smoke Control Systems
    • Stairwell Pressurization
    • Atrium Smoke Evacuation
      • Lobbies
      • Malls
    • Health Care
      • Anesthetizing Locations
introduction what is smoke control
Introduction – What is Smoke Control
  • Passive vs. Active
    • Passive
      • ‘Smoke Resistant Construction’
      • Smoke Barriers – 20 minute rated openings
    • Active
      • Pressurization Systems
        • High-rise of old
        • Healthcare
      • Atrium Smoke Exhaust
        • Exhaust
        • Makeup Air
      • Stair Towers
        • Exhaust
        • Makeup Air
introduction why smoke control
Introduction – Why Smoke Control
  • Inhalation injury from smoke and the noxious products of combustion in fires may account for as many as 75% of fire-related deaths in the U.S.
  • Key concept - minimize vertical smoke migration. Passive smoke control is known for poor maintenance. Unsealed penetrations, terminations, etc.
  • Basic concept of Smoke Control is to allow occupants to reach a protected means of egress
  • Fire Department Operations Tool (arguable purpose but fire departments will use it this way – fire fighters control panel)
  • Architectural Design Flexibility

Atlanta Marriot 47 Story

  • Fire Example
part 1 codes applicable codes guidelines
Part 1 Codes – Applicable Codes/Guidelines
  • 2003 International Building Code (IBC), Section 909
  • NFPA 101 – Life Safety Code
  • NFPA 92A – Recommended Practice for Smoke Control Systems
  • NFPA 92B – Guide for Smoke Management in Malls, Atria, and Large Areas
  • ASHRAE 1999 HVAC Applications, Chapter 51
  • ASHRAE Principals of Smoke Management Handbook
  • Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)
    • Building Inspector
    • Fire Marshall-State and Local
part 1 codes where required
Part 1 Codes – Where Required
  • Atriums (IBC 404.4)
  • Enclosed Malls meeting Atrium definition (IBC 402.9)
  • High-rise
  • Windowless Buildings – Prisons (IBC 408.8)
  • Smoke Protected Seating (IBC 1024.6.2.1)
  • Healthcare
  • Stair Towers (IBC 1019.1.8)
    • 75 ft above fire department access
part 1 codes where required9
Part 1 Codes – Where Required
  • Atriums (2003 IBC 404.1.1/404.4)
    • “Atrium. An opening connecting two or more stories other than enclosed stairways… [ lists all shaft scenarios]…, which is closed at the top and not defined as mall…”
    • “404.4 Smoke Control. A smoke control system shall be installed in accordance with section 909.”
  • Stair Towers(2003 IBC 1019.1.8)
    • “1019.1.8 Smokeproof enclosures. … each of the exits of a building that serves stories where the floor surface is located more than 75-feet above the lowest level of fire department access or 30-feet below the level of exit discharge … shall be a smoke proof enclosure or pressurized stairway.”
part 1 codes smoke control methods
Part 1 Codes – Smoke Control Methods
  • IBC 909 does not specify a specific type of smoke control system. Options include:
    • Pressurization
      • .05-inches water gauge across smoke barriers
    • Airflow
      • Air Curtain
    • Exhaust
      • Atriums
part 1 codes exhaust method
Part 1 Codes – Exhaust Method
  • Prescriptive Design
    • 5 MW Steady State Heat Release
    • 20 Minute Duration
  • Performance Design
    • Rational Analysis – 2006 IBC
    • Times 1.5 X Egress Time
    • Fire based on fuel load

1 MW at 7 Minutes

4.6 MW 260 Seconds

part 1 codes exhaust method12
Part 1 Codes – Exhaust Method
  • Prescriptive Design
    • 5 MW Steady State Heat Release (IBC 909.9)
      • Rather large for some scenarios
    • 20 Minute Duration (IBC 909.4.6)
      • 20 minute smoke barrier opening protection
    • Tenability (IBC 909.8.1)
      • 10-feet smoke interface 2003 IBC
      • 6-feet smoke interface 2006 IBC
    • Exhaust Capacity
      • Axisymmetric Plume (IBC 909.8.2)
      • Balcony Spill Plume (IBC 909.8.3)
        • In calculations air density must be adjusted for elevation and smoke temperature. See ASHRAE Principals of Smoke Management Handbook
part i codes exhaust method air movement
Part I Codes – Exhaust Method Air Movement
  • Exhaust
    • Stratification
    • Stack Effect
    • Plugholling
  • Makeup Air
    • Natural or Mechanical
    • 85% total exhaust is rule of thumb
    • 200 fpm maximum velocity towards fire
      • Distortion of smoke plume
    • Introduce Below Smoke Layer
part 1 codes equipment criteria
Part 1 Codes – Equipment Criteria
  • UL Listings
    • Fans
    • Smoke Dampers
    • Fire Alarm Control Panel
    • BAS
  • Fire Fighters Smoke Control Panel
      • Fire Command Center?
  • Equipment Temperature Ratings
    • IBC 909.10.1
  • Initiation as required by Rational Analysis
    • Sprinklers
    • Manual Pull Stations
    • Properly Zoned Sprinkler Waterflow Detection
part 2 design smoke control design team
Part 2 Design – Smoke Control Design Team
  • Specialty Engineered System
  • Multidiscipline Effort
    • Architect
    • MEF
    • Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)
part 2 design architectural component
Part 2 Design – Architectural Component
  • Smoke Control Objective
  • Aesthetics
  • Automatic Door Hardware
  • Owner/Team

Communication

  • Alternatives
part 2 design mechanical engineering component
Part 2 Design – Mechanical Engineering Component
  • Makeup Air Configuration
  • Exhaust Air Configuration
part 2 design mechanical engineering component18
Part 2 Design – Mechanical Engineering Component
  • Fan Specification (IBC 909.10.5)
    • 1.5 X Belts Required for Design Duty
    • Minimum 2 Belts
    • Fan Temperature Ratings
  • Duct Specifications (IBC 909.10.2)
    • Withstand fire pressures and temperatures
    • Field Tested to 1.5 X maximum design pressure
  • Smoke Damper Approach
    • Omit where air path is instrumental to system operation
  • Fire Damper Approach
    • Higher Temperature Heat Links
  • BAS
    • Positive Indication of Fan Status
part 2 design electrical engineering component
Part 2 Design – Electrical Engineering Component
  • Primary Power
  • Secondary Power
    • Dedicated Fire Resistant ATS/Secondary Power Room
    • 60 Second Transfer Time (IBC 909.11)
    • 15 minute duration UPS for volatile memory BAS (IBC 909.11.1).
part 2 design fire protection engineering component
Part 2 Design – Fire ProtectionEngineering Component
  • Design Approach/Rational Analysis
    • Design Fire
    • Stack Effect/Hot Air Stratification
    • Temperature/Wind Effect
    • HVAC System Considerations
    • Plugholling
    • Duration of Operation (Egress Calculations)
part 2 design fire protection engineering component21
Part 2 Design – Fire ProtectionEngineering Component
  • Automatic Sprinkler System
    • Zone Coordination
  • Fire Alarm and Detection System
  • Firefighters Smoke Control Panel
  • Special Inspections
part 2 design authority having jurisdiction component
Part 2 Design – Authority HavingJurisdiction Component
  • Interpretations
  • Design Approval
  • Acceptance Criteria
part 3 commissioning general
Part 3 Commissioning – General
  • Why Commission
    • Prove System Functionality
    • Develop Benchmark for Future Testing
  • Commissioning Concerns
    • Outside Normal Services
    • Educate Architects/Contractors/Owners Early
  • Commissioning Team
    • Owner
    • Engineers
    • AHJ
    • Air Balance and Test Group
part 3 commissioning preparation
Part 3 Commissioning – Preparation
  • Construction Completion/Partial Occupancy
  • Inspection
  • Component Level Testing
    • Functionality Test
  • Pre-test
    • Test System as a Whole
  • Final Acceptance Test
    • Presence of AHJ
    • Smoke Test if Required
      • Early AHJ coordination can avoids this
part 3 commissioning smoke testing
Part 3 Commissioning – Smoke Testing
  • Subjective - Smoke testing is extremely subjective although it will be required in many jurisdictions. NFPA 92A discusses smoke testing in detail. NFPA 92A (2002) Section A.5.3.3.6. speaks to the limited value of smoke testing.
  • Hot/Cold Smoke Testing
  • Limitations
part 3 commissioning smoke testing con t
Part 3 Commissioning – Smoke Testing (con’t)
  • Smoke Bombs
    • Superior Smoke
      • Smoke Volume
      • Discharge Time
  • Smoke Generators
    • Theatrical Units
part 3 commissioning air balance test reports
Part 3 Commissioning – Air Balance Test Reports
  • Air Balance Contractor
    • Clear Scope
      • Exhaust Fans
      • Makeup Air Fans
      • Makeup Air Inlets
    • Capability to Adjust Equipment
part 3 commissioning initiation
Part 3 Commissioning – Initiation
  • Fire Alarm
    • Smoke Detection
    • Manual Alarms
    • Waterflow
part 3 commissioning initiation con t
Part 3 Commissioning – Initiation (con’t.)
  • Fire Fighters Smoke Control Panel
    • Status Indication
    • Control
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Questions?

Thank you.

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