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Final Regents Review: The Middle Ages. By: Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H.S. Chappaqua, NY. Periodization. Early Middle Ages : 500 – 1000 High Middle Ages : 1000 – 1250 Late Middle Ages : 1250 - 1500. Europe in the 6c. The Medieval Catholic Church.

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slide1

Final Regents Review:

The Middle Ages

By: Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley H.S. Chappaqua, NY

slide2

Periodization

Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000

High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250

Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500

slide4

The Medieval Catholic Church

  • filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world.
  • monasticism:
    • St. Benedict – Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience.
    • provided schools for the children of the upper class.
    • inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war.
    • libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts.
    • monks  missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]
slide5

The Power of the Medieval Church

  • bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system.
  • the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe.
  • tried to curb feudal warfare  only 40 days a year for combat.
  • curb heresies  crusades; Inquisition
  • tithe  1/10 tax on your assets given to the church.
  • Peter’s Pence  1 penny per person [paid by the peasants].
slide9

Romanesque Architectural Style

  • Rounded Arches.
  • Barrel vaults.
  • Thick walls.
  • Darker, simplistic interiors.
  • Small windows, usually at the top of the wall.
slide17

Feudalism

A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.

slide20

The Road to Knighthood

KNIGHT

SQUIRE

PAGE

slide24

The

"Renaissance"

of the 12c

slide26

Evolution of England’s Political System

  • Henry I:
    • William’s son.
    • set up a court system.
    • Exchequer dept. of royal finances.
  • Henry II:
    • established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom.
    • grand jury.
    • trial by jury.
slide27

Evolution of England’s Political System

  • Henry I:
    • William’s son.
    • set up a court system.
    • Exchequer dept. of royal finances.
  • Henry II:
    • established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom.
    • grand jury.
    • trial by jury.
slide28

Magna Carta, 1215

  • King John I
  • Runnymeade
  • “Great Charter”
  • monarchs were not above the law.
  • kings had to consult a council of advisors.
  • kings could not tax arbitrarily.
slide29

The Beginnings of the British Parliament

  • Great Council:
    • middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c.
    • eventually called Parliament.
    • by 1400, two chambers evolved:
      • House of Lords  nobles & clergy.
      • House of Commons  knights and burgesses.
slide31

Gothic Architectural Style

  • Pointed arches.
  • High, narrow vaults.
  • Thinner walls.
  • Flying buttresses.
  • Elaborate, ornate, airier interiors.
  • Stained-glass windows.

“Flying” Buttresses

slide39

Medieval Guilds

Guild Hall

  • Commercial Monopoly:
    • Controlled membershipapprentice journeyman  master craftsman
    • Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece].
    • Controlled prices