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Final Regents Review: The Middle Ages. By: Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H.S. Chappaqua, NY. Periodization. Early Middle Ages : 500 – 1000 High Middle Ages : 1000 – 1250 Late Middle Ages : 1250 - 1500. Europe in the 6c. The Medieval Catholic Church.

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Final Regents Review:

The Middle Ages

By: Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley H.S. Chappaqua, NY


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Periodization

Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000

High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250

Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500



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The Medieval Catholic Church

  • filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world.

  • monasticism:

    • St. Benedict – Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience.

    • provided schools for the children of the upper class.

    • inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war.

    • libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts.

    • monks  missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]


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The Power of the Medieval Church

  • bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system.

  • the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe.

  • tried to curb feudal warfare  only 40 days a year for combat.

  • curb heresies  crusades; Inquisition

  • tithe  1/10 tax on your assets given to the church.

  • Peter’s Pence  1 penny per person [paid by the peasants].





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Romanesque Architectural Style

  • Rounded Arches.

  • Barrel vaults.

  • Thick walls.

  • Darker, simplistic interiors.

  • Small windows, usually at the top of the wall.




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Pope Crowned CharlemagneHoly Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800





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Charlemagne’s Empire Collapses:Treaty of Verdun, 843


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Feudalism

A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.




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The Road to Knighthood

KNIGHT

SQUIRE

PAGE


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Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior




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The

"Renaissance"

of the 12c


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William the Conqueror:Battle of Hastings, 1066(Bayeaux Tapestry)


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Evolution of England’s Political System

  • Henry I:

    • William’s son.

    • set up a court system.

    • Exchequer dept. of royal finances.

  • Henry II:

    • established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom.

    • grand jury.

    • trial by jury.


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Evolution of England’s Political System

  • Henry I:

    • William’s son.

    • set up a court system.

    • Exchequer dept. of royal finances.

  • Henry II:

    • established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom.

    • grand jury.

    • trial by jury.


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Magna Carta, 1215

  • King John I

  • Runnymeade

  • “Great Charter”

  • monarchs were not above the law.

  • kings had to consult a council of advisors.

  • kings could not tax arbitrarily.


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The Beginnings of the British Parliament

  • Great Council:

    • middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c.

    • eventually called Parliament.

    • by 1400, two chambers evolved:

      • House of Lords  nobles & clergy.

      • House of Commons  knights and burgesses.



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Gothic Architectural Style

  • Pointed arches.

  • High, narrow vaults.

  • Thinner walls.

  • Flying buttresses.

  • Elaborate, ornate, airier interiors.

  • Stained-glass windows.

“Flying” Buttresses









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Medieval Guilds

Guild Hall

  • Commercial Monopoly:

    • Controlled membershipapprentice journeyman  master craftsman

    • Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece].

    • Controlled prices