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Contextual and Cultural Influences of Opiate Abuse among U.S. Hispanics. Avelardo Valdez, Ph.D. University of Houston Graduate School of Social Work Office for Drug and Social Policy Research. National Hispanic Science Network, National Conference Miami 2005.

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contextual and cultural influences of opiate abuse among u s hispanics

Contextual and Cultural Influences of Opiate Abuse among U.S. Hispanics

Avelardo Valdez, Ph.D.

University of Houston

Graduate School of Social Work

Office for Drug and Social Policy Research

National Hispanic Science Network, National Conference

Miami 2005

slide3

Universe of Determinants

  • Genes
  • Physiologic factors
  • Traits/personality
  • Psychosocial factors
  • Neighborhood factors
  • Societal factors

Source: Yonette, T. NHSN, Summer Res. Institute, 2005

drug abuse research and the social environment
Drug Abuse Research and the Social Environment
  • Drug abuse research has focused largely on individual risks.
  • There is a need to focus and extend this research to understand an individual’s susceptibility to opiate use in interaction with the social environment, especially among U.S. Hispanics.
opiates
Opiates

Substances isolated from the opium poppy or

synthetic relatives include:

  • morphine
  • codeine
  • heroin
  • methadone
  • oxycodone

The most common used opiate among

Hispanics is heroin.

focus of today s presentation
Focus of Today’s Presentation
  • Patterns and trends of Heroin use among U.S. Hispanics
  • Contextual factors associated with IDU
  • Cultural factors associated with IDU
lifetime heroin use by race ethnicity 2003
Lifetime Heroin Use by Race/Ethnicity 2003

Source: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System 2003

adam of arrestees testing positive for heroin by sites adult male 2000 2003

ADAM % of Arrestees Testing Positive for Heroin by Sites: Adult Male 2000-2003

Highest %

Lowest %

Cities with at least 30% of the arrestee population Hispanic

admissions for heroin abuse by race ethnicity 2003 percent distribution
Admissions for Heroin Abuse by Race/Ethnicity: 2003 (Percent Distribution)

Source: Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) 2003

hispanic admissions according to primary substance abuse 2003 distribution n 238 090
Hispanic Admissions According to Primary Substance Abuse: 2003 % Distribution (n=238,090)

Source: Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) 2003

contextual factors
CONTEXTUAL FACTORS

Source: Don Normark. 1999. Chavez Ravine, 1949 A Los Angeles Story. Chronicle Books.

historical influences
HISTORICAL INFLUENCES
  • Importance of ecological context in linking Hispanics and heroin use.
  • Hispanic urban settlement patterns in and around vice districts.
  • Thisdeviance containment is a historical feature of minority communities (Reckless 1933, Osofsky 1963, Kornblum 1993).
  • As a result, this has:
    • Shaped early perceptions of drug use, crime, etc
    • Created cultural patterns of learning and,
    • Illegal Opportunities.
ethnic specific puerto rican drug injection pattern
Ethnic Specific Puerto Rican Drug Injection Pattern*
  • IDU among Puerto Ricans (PR) began after their migration and during and after WWII.
  • IDU spread among PR in NYC (1950-60s)
  • PR migrate out of NYC (i.e. Chicago) in the 1960’s and increase opportunity in drug trade.
  • Return migrants to island appear to be primary source of transferring IDU knowledge and practice.

Source: Singer, M. 1999. Why do Puerto Rican Injection Drug Users Inject So Often? Anthropology

And Medicine 6(1):31- 58.

contemporary economic influences
CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC INFLUENCES
  • Persistent Poverty
    • Overall, the burden of povertyhas disproportionately affected U.S. born Hispanics vs. immigrants.
  • Low Educational Attainment
    • Example of a social institution shaping the nature and consequences of low income Hispanic neighborhoods.
  • Disparities in Health Care & Drug Treatment Utilization
    • Economic circumstances limit access to health care.
structural influences
STRUCTURAL INFLUENCES
  • Social Isolation
    • Decrease in conventional norms (Sampson & Wilson 1995; Andersen 1999; Vigil 1988).
  • Drug Policy
    • Disproportionately target poor Hispanic minorities.
  • Drug Markets
    • Stimulated the creation of thriving illicit markets with reduced prices and higher purity of heroin (Valdez 2005).
cultural influences
CULTURAL INFLUENCES
  • Cholo Identity
    • Tecato subculture with a distinct street identity, distinct street-based criminal social networks (Valdez et al. 2000).
  • Intergenerational Transmission
    • Familismo (traditional vs. cholo family context) (Castro & Alarcon 2002; Moore 1991)
  • Gender Roles
    • Machismo / hypermasculinity (Jorquez 1984; Quintero & Estrada 1998)
etiological model of heroin use among u s hispanics
Etiological Model of Heroin Use among U.S. Hispanics

Contextual Factors

  • Cultural
  • Factors
  • Cholo Identity
  • Intergenerational
  • Transmission
  • Gender Roles

Historical Influences

Injecting

Heroin

Use

Economic Influences

Structural Influences

conclusion
Conclusion

Future research on opiate use among

Hispanics needs to take into

consideration these contextual and

cultural factors in explaining

  • tolerance,
  • addiction, and
  • physical dependence

given their etiological importance.