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Linking the balance sheet and income statement Evolving definitions Asset valuation. Liabilities and owners’ equities Hybrid securities Derivatives Classification issues. Chapter 10: The Balance Sheet. Two Types of Relationships between Balance Sheet & Income Statement. Articulated

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chapter 10 the balance sheet
Linking the balance sheet and income statement

Evolving definitions

Asset valuation

Liabilities and owners’ equities

Hybrid securities


Classification issues

Chapter 10: The Balance Sheet
two types of relationships between balance sheet income statement
Two Types of Relationships between Balance Sheet & Income Statement
  • Articulated
    • The two statements are mathematically linked
    • Net income is equal to the change in owners’ equity for a period, assuming no capital transactions or prior period adjustments
  • Nonarticulated
    • The two statements are independently defined
    • The relationship between the balance sheet and the income statement is severed
Assets – Liabilities =

Owners’ Equity





















Income Statement Accounts











accounting classification system
Accounting Classification System
  • Rather simple
  • Complex transactions do not always fit neatly into one of the categories
  • Surprisingly, current accounting classification system is virtually unchanged since Luca Pacioli’s time
articulated system alternatives
Articulated System Alternatives
  • Revenue-Expense approach
    • Concerned with the definition, recognition, and measurement of income
    • Result is that balance sheet contains assets, liabilities and ambiguous debits and credits called deferred charges and deferred credits
  • Asset-Liability approach
    • SFAC No. 6 defines comprehensive income as the change in the firm’s net assets from nonowner sources
    • Focuses on the measurement of net assets
definitions assets
Definitions: Assets
  • Something represented by a debit balance that is or would be properly carried forward upon a closing of books of account according to the rules or principles of accounting…
  • Economic resources of an enterprise that are recognized and measured in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles. Assets also include certain deferred charges...
  • Assets are probable future economic benefits obtained or controlled by a particular entity as a result of past transactions or events.
asset definition trend
Definitions of assets have evolved from a narrow legal orientation to a broader concept of economic resources.

As the definition has broadened, the boundary around what is and what is not an asset has become hazy and ambiguous.

Asset Definition Trend
executory contracts assets
Executory Contracts: Assets?
  • a contract unperformed by both parties.
  • A long-standing problem in accounting has been the question of how to account (if at all) for mutually unperformed executory contracts.
  • traditional accounting view is that no recognition is required in financial statements because a binding exchange has not yet occurred. The contract is prospective.
recognition and measurement
Recognition and Measurement
  • Assets and liabilities generally are initially recorded on the basis of events in which the enterprise acquires resources from other entities or incurs obligations to other entities.
  • The assets and liabilities are measured by the exchange prices at which the transfers take place.
  • Initially recognized when the transaction transferring control occurs
  • At this point in time, a potential exists for future economic benefits
  • Measured at the market value (exchange price) of the consideration exchanged or sacrificed to acquire the assets and place them in operating condition
    • called historical acquisition cost
    • however, an asset should not be recorded in an amount greater than its cash equivalent purchase price
asset valuation a lack of additivity
Asset Valuation: A Lack of Additivity
  • original acquisition cost (historical cost)
  • historical cost less cumulative charges to income (book value)
  • replacement cost
  • selling prices
  • net realizable value
  • net realizable value less normal markups
asset classification
Asset Classification
  • Tangible
  • Intangible
    • Copyrights
    • Patents
    • Trademarks
    • Purchased goodwill
    • Franchise agreements
assets intangibles
Assets: Intangibles
  • Period cost R&D; do not capitalize
  • Lev and Zarowin (1999)
    • Immediate write-off of intangibles lowers correlation between earnings and security prices; consistent with prior studies
    • Propose extending capitalization of some intangibles similar to software cost capitalization
Summary of Asset Measurement


Investments...APB 115

Investments...APB 18


Approximate net realizable value

Amortized historical cost

or fair value

Unique accounting attribute

(equity accounting)

Cost, replacement cost, NRV

or NRV less mark-up

Summary of Asset Measurement

Self-constructed assets

Assets subject to

depreciation or depletion

Nonmonetary exchanges

Of similar assets

Intangible assets

Full-absorption for inventory;

capitalize interest for noninventory

Unique accounting attribute

(book value)

Book value of old asset plus cash

Unique accounting attribute

(book value); R&D not capitalized

Summary of Asset Measurement

Deferred charges

Restructured receivables

...modification of terms

Impaired assets

Unique accounting attribute

(book value)

Newly restructured future cash

inflows discounted at original rate

Fair value if less than carrying

value, assuming...

definition liabilities
Definition: Liabilities
  • ... not only items which constitute liabilities in the popular sense of debts or obligations ...but also credit balances to be accounted for which do not involve a debtor and creditor relation
  • economic obligations of an enterprise recognized and measured in conformity with GAAP
  • probable future sacrifices of economic benefits
definition owners equity oe
Definition: Owners’ Equity (OE)
  • The owners’ residual interest in the net assets of the firm
  • Two types of owners’ equity transactions
    • Capital
    • Income-related
definition hybrid securities
Definition: Hybrid Securities
  • Redeemable preferred stock
  • Trust preferred stock
    • Company sells preferred stock to subsidiary
    • Subsidiary sells bonds to parent
    • Parent takes interest tax deduction and eliminates debt in consolidation process
  • Securitizations
    • involves the sale by a firm (called the transferor) of an asset or group of assets to another firm (called the transferee)
    • is to keep debt off of its balance sheet
definition derivatives
Definition: Derivatives
  • Financial instruments whose value is based upon other financial instruments, stock indexes or interest rates, or interest rate indexes
  • Two types
    • Forward-based derivatives
    • Options-based derivatives
types of derivatives
Types of Derivatives
  • Forward-based derivatives arise between two parties where one party will realize a gain and the other party will realize a loss due to a change in value of the factor underlying the instrument.
  • Option holders pay a specific “up front” price that gives them the right to buy (“call”) or sell (“put”) a specific quantity at a specific price of a standard commodity or a financial or equity instrument.
balance sheet classification issues
Balance Sheet Classification Issues
  • Current-noncurrent approach gives only a crude indication of a firm’s liquidity
  • There are five distinctly different types of accounting liabilities:
    • contractual,
    • constructive,
    • equitable,
    • contingent,
    • and deferred charges
improving accounting standards
Improving Accounting Standards
  • Distinction between available-for-sale securities and trading securities should be eliminated.
  • Held-to-maturity securities at fair value, if it is readily determinable.
  • Convertible bonds should be separated into their debt and equity components at issuance.
chapter 10 the balance sheet25
Linking the balance sheet and income statement

Evolving definitions

Asset valuation

Liabilities and owners’ equities

Hybrid securities


Classification issues

Chapter 10: The Balance Sheet