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Tibor Rudisch PhD Associate professor Psychiatric Clinic Psychiatric Rehabilitation Ward Pulz u. Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Faculty of medicine Egységek Magatartástudományi intézet/Institute of Behavioural Science

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Tibor Rudisch PhD Associate professor

  • Psychiatric Clinic Psychiatric Rehabilitation Ward
  • Pulz u.
  • Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Faculty of medicine
  • Egységek
  • Magatartástudományi intézet/Institute of Behavioural Science
  • Katalin Barabás habil. PhD leading associate professor
  • Szentháromság u.
  • Year
  • II. Semester


  • Ist year 2009/2010 2nd semester
  • Lecture time: Wednesday, 13-14 hours
  • Veneue: Oktatástechnikai Központ tanterme
  • Basic Elements and Methods of Psychologythe Origin of the Science
  • 03.02.
  • 2. Brain and Behaviour: the nature and Function of the Brain and of the Psychological Processes. Localisation of the Function
  • 10.02.
  • Sensation and perception. Psychological Aspects of Perception I
  • 17.02.
  • Sensation and perception. Psychological Aspects of Perception II
  • 25.02.
  • Memory, Encoding, Storing, Retrieving and Forgetting
  • 03.03.
  • Motivation and Emotion. The Nature of Motivation and Emotion
  • 10.03.

7. Human consciousness. Attention and arousal. Sleep and dream.

  • 17.03.
  • Intelligence I. The Nature of Intelligence, Intelligence Tests.
  • 24.03.
  • Intelligence II. The Structure of the Intellect, Extremes of Intelligence, Heredity an Environment
  • 31.03.
  • Basic elements of learning. Classical (espondent) conditioning.
  • 14.04
  • Basic elements of learning. Operant (instrumental) conditioning.
  • 21.04
  • Basic element of learning. The Cognitive approach to learning.
  • 28.04.
  • Social context. Norms, Roles and Socialisation
  • 05.05.
  • Thinking and Language
    • 12.05


(Detailed and limited version)

1st year 2009/2010. 2nd semester

ESE oral

1.Basic elements and methods of psychology.

1.1. What is Psychology, The Goals of Psychology, The Scientific Method in Psychology (4-7pp)

1.2. Methods of Psychological Research, (8-12pp)

1.3. Experimentation, the Elements of an Experiment (12-16pp)

1.4. The Origin of a Science, The Roots of Psychology (16-22pp)

1.5. Major perspectives within Psychology, (23-28pp)

2.Brain and Behaviour: the Nature and Function of the Brain and of the psychological processes. Localisation of the functions.

2.1. The Nature and Function of the Brain, The relationship of the Brain and the Nervous System, The Neuron (40-48pp)

2.2. Neurotransmitters and Behaviour, The Endocrine System (48-53pp)

2.3. The Organization of the Brain, Phrenology- a False Beginning, Language and the Brain- Localization of Functions (53-


2.4. The Three Major System of the Brain, The Cerebral Cortex, Function of the cortex, sensory and motor areas (56-68pp)

2.5. Brain, Behaviour and Cognition, Monitoring the Activity of the Brain, Imaging the Living Brain (68-74pp)

2.6. Human Consciousness and the Split Brain (74-80pp)


3. Sensation and perception. Psychological Aspects of Perceptions I.

3.1. General Characteristic of Sensation, Sensation, Perception, Thresholds (84-88pp)

3.2. The Visual Sense (88-96pp)

3.3. The Auditory Sense (96-104pp)

4. Sensation and perception. Psychological Aspects of Perceptions II.

4.1. The Other Senses (104-113pp)

4.2. The process of perception, Organisation and Perception, Form perception-, and the Brain(Gestalt), (Hubel and Wiesel)


4.3. Depth and distance perception. Perceptual Constancies, Illusion (118-127pp)

5. Human Memory. Forming Memories, Retrieving Memories, Forgetting.

5.1. Forming Memories, Encoding (256-260pp)

5.2. Forming Memories, Storage (206-268pp)

5.3. Retrieving Memories, Organization, Retrieval Cues, Context and Retrieval, Construction and Distortion During Recall


5.4. Forgetting, Ebbinghaus’s Pioneering Studies (274-279pp)


6. Motivation and Emotion. The nature of Motivation and Emotion.

6.1. The nature of Motivation, Instinct-, Drive, Arousal, Opponent-Process, Incentive theories (132-138pp)

6.2. Social motivation: theory and research , Classification of Human Motives, Important Social Motives (154-161pp)

6.3. The nature of emotion, what is emotion, classifying emotions, body changes in emotion, Theories of emotion (161-173pp)

7.Human consciousness. Attention and arousal.

7.1. Normal waking Consciousness, Subconscious Mental Activity, Consciousness and Attention, Unconscious information

Processing (178-184pp)

7.2. Sleep and Dreams, Stages of Sleep, Dreaming Sleep, A night’s Sleep, The Need to Sleep (184-190pp)

7.3.The Nature of Dreams, The Need to Dream, Dream Theories 190-194pp)


8.1. The Nature of Intelligence, Intelligence Tests, (390-399pp)


9.1. The Structure of the Intellect, Extremes of Intelligence, Heredity, Environment, and Intelligence, (399-410pp)


10.Basic elements of learning. Classical (respondent) conditioning.

10.1. Conditioning and Learning, What is learning, Classical Conditioning, Process in Classical Conditioning, Classical

Conditioning and Human Behaviour. (216-224pp)

11. Basic Element of Learning. Operant (instrumental) conditioning.

11.1. Conditioning and Learning, What is learning, Operant Conditioning, Thorndike’s Puzzle Box, The consequences of

Behaviour, Process in Operant conditioning, Operant Conditioning and Human Behaviour (224-231pp)

12.Basic Element if Learning. TheCognitive approach to learning.

12.1. Conditioning and Learning, What is learning, The cognitive Approach to Learning, Insight Learning in Chimps,

observational learning, Learned Helplessness, Cognitive or Stimulus-response Learning (247-251pp)

13. Social context. Norms, Roles and Socialisation.

13.1. Social Cognition, Impression Formation and Attribution, (422-429pp)

13.2. Attitudes and Beliefs, (430-439pp)

13.3. Prejudice and Stereotypes, (440-444pp)

13.4. Interpersonal Attraction, (444-451pp)


14. Thinking and Language.

14.1. The Nature of Thinking, Concept, Problem solving, (294-301pp)

14.2. The Nature of Thinking, Reasoning, Decision Making, Artificial Intelligence, (302-306pp)

14.3. Language, The Nature of language, Spoken Language, Development of Language, Babbling, Single words, Word

combination, Sentences and Complex Constructions (306-317pp)

14.4. Theories of Language Development, (314-317pp)

14.5. Language and Though, Language in Other Species, (317.326pp)

Obligatory Literature: PSYCHOLOGY, Andrew B. Crider, Robert D. Kavanaugh, George R. Goethals, Paul R,. Solomon, Fourth Edition, 1993 by HarperCollins College Publisher.



  • Psychology and Medical Care. Gerry Kent, Mary Dalgleish
  • Introduction to Psychology Rita L. Atkinson at all.
  • Psychology. Andrew B. Crider at all
  • University of Szeged Faculty of Medicine
  • Departments
  • Department of Psychiatry
  • Library

The philosophical

origins of psychology

Schools of thought

in psychology

Areas of




Philosophical perspectives

Introspectionism and behaviourism

European psychology

Clinical psychology

The cognitive revolution

Ethics and methodology

Areas of psychology


influential philosophers
Influential Philosophers




Theory of evolution





Mind and body


Measurement +



descartes 1596 1650
Descartes (1596-1650)
  • Cartesian dualism - the mind and the body considered to be separate
    • Mind centre of thought and consciousness
    • Body physical and automatic actions
  • Influence on Western medical thinking
  • Animal/human distinction
    • Animals instinctive vs.
    • Human reasoning
locke 1632 1704
Locke (1632 - 1704)
  • Empiricism
    • only observable and measurable facts count as data
    • Behaviourist outcome
  • Associationism
    • all learning based on associations
    • complex chains of associations form from life experiences
darwin 1859
Darwin (1859)
  • Theory of evolution
    • organisms change through adaptation
    • if adaptation improves chances of survival
    • survival of the fittest
  • Animal/human comparison
    • humans part of the evolutionary continuum
    • animal behaviour evolves into human behaviour?
historical links
Historical links



European psychology

Tajfel- Social identity theory


Wundt, Ebbighaus &


Gestalt school








Classical +





Operant conditioning





Person centred





Aversion therapy &

behaviour modification


cognitive development

introspectionism behaviourism
Introspectionism involves

analysing and reporting own experiences

or that of highly trained assistants

Wundt studied consciousness and social awareness

James studied individual experience from memory to emotion

Ebbinghause worked on human memory

Watson challenged introspectionist approach in 1913 as non-scientific

impossible to study mind due to lack of observable phenomena

verification important

Stimulus-response associations (see Locke)

fitted modernist thinking of time

Classical and Operant conditioning

Introspectionism & behaviourism
behaviourist black box approach
Behaviourist ‘Black Box’ approach

Brain seen as a ‘black box’



Developed by Sigmund Freud as a way to explain human psychological problems

Based on a non-rational approach

Identified the role of the unconscious mind in the control of human behaviour

Developed the concept of dynamic forces of the id, ego and superego that control human behaviour

Research based on Freud’s case studies using a phenomenological approach

behaviour therapy
Behaviour therapy
  • Dollard (1939) reconceptualised psychoanalysis using a behaviourist perspective
  • Based therapy on behaviour conditioning
  • Aversion therapy involves conditioned avoidance
  • Utilises principles of classical conditioning developed by Pavlov
  • Behaviour modification techniques utilise operant conditioning techniques
  • Aim to model more appropriate behaviours based on Bandura’s work on imitation
humanistic psychology
Humanistic Psychology
  • Carl Rogers work was based on positive personal growth
  • It used an holistic approach
  • Developed the concept of self-actualisation to which personal growth is directed
  • Abraham Maslow worked in the area of human motivation
  • Saw self -actualisation as the ultimate goal of motivation in an hierarchy of social need
the cognitive revolution
The cognitive revolution
  • Established to overcome the ‘black-box’ limitations of the Behaviourist approach
  • Took psychology back to the study of the mind
  • Laboratory based research using human participants
  • Two limitations of the approach are;
    • the exclusive of laboratory research
    • Computer metaphor ignores social factors
  • Other shifts from this approach have been interest in
    • social cognition
    • cognitive neuro-psychology
    • animal cognition
black box revisited
‘Black-box’ revisited

Trying to explain processes within the brain



1 2 3 4

Mental processes

ethics and methodology
Ethics and methodology
  • Growth of concern about ethical issues in recent years
    • manipulative approach of experiments
    • deception the norm
    • human rights concerns
  • more use of triangulation
    • different methods
    • same area
  • Participants not subjects
  • Growth of use of self-report techniques
psychological perspectives
Psychological perspectives


Reductionism and interactionism

Free will & determinism

Perspectives and

issues in psychology

Levels of analysis


Idiographic and

Hermeneutic explanations

Nature/nurture debates


Basic elements and methods of psychology. The origins of the science

What is Psychology?

Psychology can be defined as the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes.

The Goals of Psychology:

To describe, explain, and predict behaviour and mental processes, and to use the knowledge gained through study to promote human welfare.

The Scientific Method in Psychology

The scientific method is an approach to defining problems, designing and conducting studies, and drawing conclusion that enables other scientists to have confidence in the data that are collected and the conclusions that are drawn.


Major origins of the Science

  • Naturalistic observation
  • The case study
  • Surveys
  • Correlational studies
  • Experimentation
  • The Origins of the Science
  • The biopsychological perspective
  • The psychodynamic perspective
  • The behavioural perspective
  • The humanistic perspective
  • The cognitive perspective

Table 1.1. The Steps of the Scientific Method

  • Specify the problem
  • State the hypothesis in a testable way.
  • 2. Design and conduct the study
  • Create operational definitions
  • Eliminate bias
  • 3. Collect the data
  • Subject the collected data to statistical analysis
  • Draw conclusions
  • 4. Report the conclusions
  • Publish the results of the study

Table 1.2. The Elements of an Experiment: An Illustration of Liebert and Baron’s (1972) Study „Some Effects of Televised Violence on Children”


Figure 1.2

Psychology’s first century


Origin of Species, Darwin

1861- 1865

U.S. Civil War


U.S. transcontinental railroad completed


Alexander Graham Bell invents telephone

.S. centennial


Wright brothers invent airplane


Stock market crash


Japanese attack Pearl Harbour


First men land on moon


U.S. bicentennial


Bicentennial of he U.S. Constitution


Wundt and James found first psychological laboratories


Francis Galton develops correlations


Principles of Psychology, James


G.Stanley Hall founds the American Psychological Association


The Interpretation of Dreams, Freud; Pavlov begins studying conditioning


„Psychology as the Behaviourist Views It.” Watson


Hans Berger discovers method of recording EEG


The Behaviour of Organisms, Skinner


Client-Centered Therapy, Rogers


Motivation and Personality, Maslow


Cognitive Psychology, Neisser


Roger Sperry wins Nobel Prize


Centennial celebration of the funding of G. Stanley Hall’s laboratory at Johns Hopkins University


Table 1.3 Divisions of the American Psychological Association

  • APA
  • Division
  • Number APA Division Name
  • Division of General Psychology
  • Division on the Teaching of Psychology
  • Division of Experimental Psychology
  • Division of Evaluation and Measurement
  • Division of Physiological and Comparative Psychology
  • Division on Developmental Psychology
  • The Society of Personality and Social Psychology
  • Te Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues
  • Division of Psychology and the Arts
  • 12 Division of Clinical Psychology
  • Division of Consulting Psychology
  • The Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc.
  • Division of Educational Psychology
  • Division of School Psychology
  • Division of Counselling Psychology
  • Division of Psychologists in Public Service
  • Division of Military Psychology
  • Division of Adult Development and Aging
  • Division of Applied Experimental and Engineering Psychologists

Division of Rehabilitation Psychology

  • Division of Consumer Psychology
  • Division of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology
  • Division for the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour
  • Division of the History of Psychology
  • Division of Community Psychology
  • Division of Psychopharmacology
  • Division of Psychotherapy
  • Division of Psychological Hypnosis
  • Division of State Psychological Association Affairs
  • Division of Humanistic Psychology
  • Division of Mental Retardation
  • Division of Population and Environmental Psychology
  • Division of Psychology of Women
  • Psychologists Interested in Religious Issues (PIRI)
  • Division of Child, Youth, and Family Services

38 Division of Health Psychology

39 Division of Psychoanalysis

40 Division of Clinical Neuropsychology

41 Division of Psychology and Law

42 Division of Psychologists in Independent Practice

43 Division of Family Psychology

44 The Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian and Gay Issues

45 Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues

46 Division of Media Psychology

47 Division of Exercise and Sport Psychology

(Note: There are no Divisions 4 or 11.


Psychology vs. Psychiatry

  • Clinical Psychologist (PhD)
  • -a speciality in psychology
  • Clinical psychologist
  • -uses psychological tests and psychotherapy to the diagnostics and treatment of psychological disorders
  • Psychiatrist (M.D.)
  • A speciality in medicine
  • - psychiatrist
  • . May prescribe medication and use psychotherapy