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Tibor Rudisch PhD Associate professor Psychiatric Clinic Psychiatric Rehabilitation Ward Pulz u. http://www.szote.u-szeged.hu/indexnf.htm Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Faculty of medicine Egységek Magatartástudományi intézet/Institute of Behavioural Science
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INSRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION FOR MEDICAL-, AND DENTISTRY STUDENTS
(Detailed and limited version)
1st year 2009/2010. 2nd semester
1.Basic elements and methods of psychology.
1.1. What is Psychology, The Goals of Psychology, The Scientific Method in Psychology (4-7pp)
1.2. Methods of Psychological Research, (8-12pp)
1.3. Experimentation, the Elements of an Experiment (12-16pp)
1.4. The Origin of a Science, The Roots of Psychology (16-22pp)
1.5. Major perspectives within Psychology, (23-28pp)
2.Brain and Behaviour: the Nature and Function of the Brain and of the psychological processes. Localisation of the functions.
2.1. The Nature and Function of the Brain, The relationship of the Brain and the Nervous System, The Neuron (40-48pp)
2.2. Neurotransmitters and Behaviour, The Endocrine System (48-53pp)
2.3. The Organization of the Brain, Phrenology- a False Beginning, Language and the Brain- Localization of Functions (53-
2.4. The Three Major System of the Brain, The Cerebral Cortex, Function of the cortex, sensory and motor areas (56-68pp)
2.5. Brain, Behaviour and Cognition, Monitoring the Activity of the Brain, Imaging the Living Brain (68-74pp)
2.6. Human Consciousness and the Split Brain (74-80pp)
3. Sensation and perception. Psychological Aspects of Perceptions I.
3.1. General Characteristic of Sensation, Sensation, Perception, Thresholds (84-88pp)
3.2. The Visual Sense (88-96pp)
3.3. The Auditory Sense (96-104pp)
4. Sensation and perception. Psychological Aspects of Perceptions II.
4.1. The Other Senses (104-113pp)
4.2. The process of perception, Organisation and Perception, Form perception-, and the Brain(Gestalt), (Hubel and Wiesel)
4.3. Depth and distance perception. Perceptual Constancies, Illusion (118-127pp)
5. Human Memory. Forming Memories, Retrieving Memories, Forgetting.
5.1. Forming Memories, Encoding (256-260pp)
5.2. Forming Memories, Storage (206-268pp)
5.3. Retrieving Memories, Organization, Retrieval Cues, Context and Retrieval, Construction and Distortion During Recall
5.4. Forgetting, Ebbinghaus’s Pioneering Studies (274-279pp)
6.1. The nature of Motivation, Instinct-, Drive, Arousal, Opponent-Process, Incentive theories (132-138pp)
6.2. Social motivation: theory and research , Classification of Human Motives, Important Social Motives (154-161pp)
6.3. The nature of emotion, what is emotion, classifying emotions, body changes in emotion, Theories of emotion (161-173pp)
7.Human consciousness. Attention and arousal.
7.1. Normal waking Consciousness, Subconscious Mental Activity, Consciousness and Attention, Unconscious information
7.2. Sleep and Dreams, Stages of Sleep, Dreaming Sleep, A night’s Sleep, The Need to Sleep (184-190pp)
7.3.The Nature of Dreams, The Need to Dream, Dream Theories 190-194pp)
8.1. The Nature of Intelligence, Intelligence Tests, (390-399pp)
9.1. The Structure of the Intellect, Extremes of Intelligence, Heredity, Environment, and Intelligence, (399-410pp)
10.Basic elements of learning. Classical (respondent) conditioning.
10.1. Conditioning and Learning, What is learning, Classical Conditioning, Process in Classical Conditioning, Classical
Conditioning and Human Behaviour. (216-224pp)
11. Basic Element of Learning. Operant (instrumental) conditioning.
11.1. Conditioning and Learning, What is learning, Operant Conditioning, Thorndike’s Puzzle Box, The consequences of
Behaviour, Process in Operant conditioning, Operant Conditioning and Human Behaviour (224-231pp)
12.Basic Element if Learning. TheCognitive approach to learning.
12.1. Conditioning and Learning, What is learning, The cognitive Approach to Learning, Insight Learning in Chimps,
observational learning, Learned Helplessness, Cognitive or Stimulus-response Learning (247-251pp)
13. Social context. Norms, Roles and Socialisation.
13.1. Social Cognition, Impression Formation and Attribution, (422-429pp)
13.2. Attitudes and Beliefs, (430-439pp)
13.3. Prejudice and Stereotypes, (440-444pp)
13.4. Interpersonal Attraction, (444-451pp)
14.1. The Nature of Thinking, Concept, Problem solving, (294-301pp)
14.2. The Nature of Thinking, Reasoning, Decision Making, Artificial Intelligence, (302-306pp)
14.3. Language, The Nature of language, Spoken Language, Development of Language, Babbling, Single words, Word
combination, Sentences and Complex Constructions (306-317pp)
14.4. Theories of Language Development, (314-317pp)
14.5. Language and Though, Language in Other Species, (317.326pp)
Obligatory Literature: PSYCHOLOGY, Andrew B. Crider, Robert D. Kavanaugh, George R. Goethals, Paul R,. Solomon, Fourth Edition, 1993 by HarperCollins College Publisher.
origins of psychology
Schools of thought
Theory of evolution
Mind and body
Tajfel- Social identity theory
Wundt, Ebbighaus &
Aversion therapy &
analysing and reporting own experiences
or that of highly trained assistants
Wundt studied consciousness and social awareness
James studied individual experience from memory to emotion
Ebbinghause worked on human memory
Watson challenged introspectionist approach in 1913 as non-scientific
impossible to study mind due to lack of observable phenomena
Stimulus-response associations (see Locke)
fitted modernist thinking of time
Classical and Operant conditioningIntrospectionism & behaviourism
Brain seen as a ‘black box’
Based on a non-rational approach
Identified the role of the unconscious mind in the control of human behaviour
Developed the concept of dynamic forces of the id, ego and superego that control human behaviour
Research based on Freud’s case studies using a phenomenological approachPsychoanalysis
Trying to explain processes within the brain
1 2 3 4
Reductionism and interactionism
Free will & determinism
issues in psychology
Levels of analysis
What is Psychology?
Psychology can be defined as the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes.
The Goals of Psychology:
To describe, explain, and predict behaviour and mental processes, and to use the knowledge gained through study to promote human welfare.
The Scientific Method in Psychology
The scientific method is an approach to defining problems, designing and conducting studies, and drawing conclusion that enables other scientists to have confidence in the data that are collected and the conclusions that are drawn.
Table 1.2. The Elements of an Experiment: An Illustration of Liebert and Baron’s (1972) Study „Some Effects of Televised Violence on Children”
Psychology’s first century
Origin of Species, Darwin
U.S. Civil War
U.S. transcontinental railroad completed
Alexander Graham Bell invents telephone
Wright brothers invent airplane
Stock market crash
Japanese attack Pearl Harbour
First men land on moon
Bicentennial of he U.S. Constitution
Wundt and James found first psychological laboratories
Francis Galton develops correlations
Principles of Psychology, James
G.Stanley Hall founds the American Psychological Association
The Interpretation of Dreams, Freud; Pavlov begins studying conditioning
„Psychology as the Behaviourist Views It.” Watson
Hans Berger discovers method of recording EEG
The Behaviour of Organisms, Skinner
Client-Centered Therapy, Rogers
Motivation and Personality, Maslow
Cognitive Psychology, Neisser
Roger Sperry wins Nobel Prize
Centennial celebration of the funding of G. Stanley Hall’s laboratory at Johns Hopkins University
39 Division of Psychoanalysis
40 Division of Clinical Neuropsychology
41 Division of Psychology and Law
42 Division of Psychologists in Independent Practice
43 Division of Family Psychology
44 The Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian and Gay Issues
45 Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues
46 Division of Media Psychology
47 Division of Exercise and Sport Psychology
(Note: There are no Divisions 4 or 11.