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the impotrance of critical thinking


How critical thinking influences our daily lives;

Analysis, conceptualization, definition, application and syntheisis.

Filip Žanpera

Lesson on to think



what is critical thinking
What is critical thinking?
  • 1) Give someone a fish, and they’ll eat that day.
  • 2) Teach someone how to fish and they’ll be fed for their lif(v)e(s).
  • Learning skills

1) Dependence

2) Self-reliance


what is critical thinking3
What is critical thinking?
  • What does critical thinking imply?
  • Analyzing- What is X? How does X fit in nature?
  • Conceptualizing- Given the analysis, what is our concept of X?
  • Defining- X is...
  • Examining- How can I be sure of our concept and definition of X?
  • Inferring- From given evidences/premisses of X, I conclude...
  • Listening- What are counter-arguments against X? What are other explanations of X?
  • Questioning- What flaws/weaknesses do counter-arguments against X have? What are flaws/weaknesses of my own arguments for/against X?
  • Reasoning- My agruments have this and that flaw. Counter-arguments have this and that flaw, thus...
  • Syntheizing- Given the avalible information for and against the notion, it is reasonable to conclude...

Evaluating information

+ in a disciplined way

Evaluating our thought

evaluating our thoughts
Evaluating our thoughts
  • Examining our own capabilities as thinkers
  • Acknowledging flaws and weaknesses of our own claims
  • Refining our thought processes
  • Think and asses information more comprehensively
  • Identify and reject false ideas / ideologies
evaluating our thoughts5
Evaluating our thoughts
  • Critical thinking !=* Thinking a lot

Why did Johnny fail?



Position X

Position Y







Johnny T. Hinker

* != sign implies “Does not equate” in programming language

what are biases and why are they important to distinguish
What are biases and why are they important to distinguish?
  • Merriam-Webster: “a line diagonal to the grain of a fabric.“
  • Political: Obama is bad because he’s not a Republican.
  • Cultural: Obama is bad because his mother is Kenyan.
  • Upbringing: Obama is bad because my dad says so.
  • Obama signed NDAA
  • Obama extended Patriot Act
  • Obama promissed changes; Changed promisses
what are biases and why are they important to distinguish7
What are biases and why are they important to distinguish?
  • Biases skew our perception of reality
  • Often times they are unfounded
  • Biases encourage prejudice, hatred and “witch-hunting”
  • Often times they are irrelevant to the issue in hand
  • They are based on subjective reasoning which is not extrovert, meaning that our reasoning on the issue comes from inside, rather than outside (where the subject/object of the question is).
what are biases and why are they important to distinguish8
What are biases and why are they important to distinguish?

We must want to be better thinkers

Pinpoint and minimize biasing influence from culture and upbringing

Seek out and be guided by knowledge and evidence that fits with reality

even if it refutes your cherished beliefs.

what are biases and why are they important to distinguish9
What are biases and why are they important to distinguish?

Seek out and be guided by knowledge and evidence that fits with reality

even if it refutes your



If shown to be unfounded



Appropriate response

  • Doubting
  • Suspending our judgement




  • Sound
  • Consistent logic
  • Emotion / Social Preassure
logic and fallacies
Logic and fallacies
  • Merriam-Webster definition (logic): “[a] science that deals with the principles and criteria of validity of inference and demonstration : the science of the formal principles of reasoning”
  • Merriam-Webster definition (fallacy): “a false or mistaken idea”

Premisse 1 + Premisse 2 + Premisse 3 = Conclusion

examine and apply critical thought
Examine and apply critical thought
  • CLAIM: “Earthquakes in the Andes were correlated with the closest approaches of the planet Uranus. Therefore, Uranus must have caused them.”



Co-relation does NOT imply a causative.

examine and apply critical thought14
Examine and apply critical thought
  • CLAIM:  ”If I make an exception for you then I'll have to make an exception for everyone.”



Slippery Slope Fallacy; X is wrong because Y is wrong and it’s comes right after that.

examine and apply critical thought15
Examine and apply critical thought
  • CLAIM: “Ann became a Christian 2 years ago. Since then, her grades have gone up. Thus, she’s better student because of her religion.”



Post hoc ergo propter hoc; X happened after Y, thus Y caused X. (similar to co-relation/causative fallacy)

qualities of a critical thinker
Qualities of a critical thinker
  • Can handle uncertainty
  • Prefers to be aware of own areas of ignorance
  • Can wait for valid evidence and evidence-based answers
why is critical thinking important
Why is critical thinking important?
  • Provides us with keys to unlocking our own intellectual independence
  • We become willing and able to explore and solve problems on our own
  • Problem solving skills +100
  • Naivity and intellectual dishonesty skills -100
any questions
Any questions?

*Loud applause*

by Filip Žanpera