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The Foreign Exchange Market. The Foreign Exchange Market. Form and function of the foreign exchange market Difference between spot and forward rates Determinants of currency exchange rates Foreign exchange risk and the exchange market Exchange rate forecasting Convertibility of currencies

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Presentation Transcript
the foreign exchange market2
The Foreign Exchange Market
  • Form and function of the foreign exchange market
  • Difference between spot and forward rates
  • Determinants of currency exchange rates
  • Foreign exchange risk and the exchange market
  • Exchange rate forecasting
  • Convertibility of currencies
  • Countertrade as convertibility mitigation factor
foreign exchange
Foreign Exchange
  • The foreign exchange market
    • Is the market where one buys or sells the currency of country A with the currency of country B
  • A currency exchange rate
    • Is simply the ratio of a unit of currency of country A to a unit of the currency of country B at the time of the buy or sell transaction
the foreign exchange market6
The Foreign Exchange Market
  • Currency conversion in the foreign exchange market
    • Is necessary to complete private and commercial transactions across borders
    • A tourist needs to pay expenses on the road in local currency
    • A firm
      • Buys/sells goods and services in the other country’s local currency
      • Uses the foreign exchange market to invest excess funds
  • Is used to speculate on currency movements
the foreign exchange market7
The Foreign Exchange Market
  • Minimizes foreign exchange risk (unpredictable rate swings)
  • To do so there are different ways to trade currencies
    • Spot exchange rates: the day’s rate offered by a dealer/bank
    • Forward exchange rates:
      • Agreed in advance rates to buy/sell a currency on a future date
      • Usually quoted 30, 90, 120 days in advance
  • The market is “open” 24 hours…
  • Arbitrage is the process of buying low and selling high … given slightly different exchange rate quotes in one location vs another (e.g., London vs Tokyo)
prices and exchange rates
Prices and Exchange Rates
  • The law of one price:
    • Identical products sold in different countries must sell for one price if their price is expressed in one currency
    • Assumptions:
      • Competitive markets
      • No transportation costs; no trade barriers
  • Purchasing Power Parity (PPP):
    • If the law of one price holds for all goods / services, the PPP exchange rate is found by comparing prices of identical products in different countries
money supply and currency value
Money Supply and Currency Value
  • Inflation occurs when the quantity of money in circulation rises faster than the stock of goods and services
  • Money supply growth related to currency value
  • Relative inflation rates and trends can predict relative exchange rate movements
  • When changes in relative prices in two countries change their currencies’ exchange rate, then the currency of the country with the highest inflation should decline in value
interest rates and exchange rates
Interest Rates and Exchange Rates
  • Interest rates reflect expectations of inflation rates;
    • high interest rates reflect high inflation expectation
    • Fisher Effect: i = r + I
      • i: “nominal” interest rate in a country
      • r: “real” interest rate
      • I: inflation over the period the funds are to be lent
    • International Fisher Effect: (S1-S2)/S2 X 100 = i$ - i¥
      • For any two countries the spot exchange rate should change in an equal amount but in the opposite direction to the difference in nominal interest rates between the two countries
      • S1: spot rate at time 1, S2 : spot rate at time 1; i$, i¥: nominal interest rates in the US and Japan
exchange rate forecasting
Exchange Rate Forecasting
  • The efficient market school
    • Prices reflect all available public information
  • The inefficient market school
    • Prices do not reflect all available public information
  • Approaches to forecasting
    • Fundamental analysis
      • Econometric models draw on economic theory to forecast future movements
    • Technical analysis
      • Extrapolation/interpretation of past trends assuming they predict future movements
convertibility
Convertibility
  • Currency convertibility and government policy
    • Freely convertible: residents/non-residents allowed to purchase unlimited amounts of a foreign currency with the local currency
    • Not freely convertible: residents/non-residents not allowed to purchase unlimited amounts of a foreign currency with the local currency
  • Countertrade
    • Barter agreements by which goods and services can be traded for other goods and services
    • Used to get around the non-convertibility of currencies