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SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN INTRODUCTION
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  1. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS ANDDESIGNINTRODUCTION 1

  2. Systems Analysis and Design is the process people use to create (automated) information systems Systems Analysis & Design Information System 2

  3. Is there an “official” name? Systems Analysis and Design! Software Engineering! Information Systems Engineering! Systems Engineering! Information Systems Development! Other names...! Which one? 3

  4. Systems Analyst A title given to a person who studies the problems and needs of an organization looking for improvement opportunities. Other names: • Software Engineer • Systems Engineer • Software Developer • Programmer/Analyst • Nerd or Hacker! (joking!) 4

  5. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN: A Condensed (Informal) Perspective Completed Information System An idea Design and Implementation Analysis Time 5

  6. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN: A Complete (Formal) Perspective • Systems Planning • Systems Analysis • Systems Design • Systems Implementation • Systems Evolution Planning Evolution Analysis Design Implementation 6

  7. System Natural Fabricated Information Systems Others Automated Information Systems Others 7

  8. Business “problems” come in all sizes and shapes! • Name & Address Book • CD Collection • Course Registration • Reservations • Student Grades • Payroll • ATM machine & Banking in General • Check-Out Counters at Retail Stores • Order Fulfillment - Mail or Web Ordering • Manufacturing • Securities Portfolio Management • Space Shuttle Flight • Election Results • Video Games (Arcade and Home) Examples: 8

  9. A SYSTEM is a set of: interrelated components working together for a common purpose System 9

  10. SYSTEM processing boundary controls inputs outputs feedback A Generic System Model (with Six Components) • Examples: • Automobile • Student Registration System • Others... 10

  11. System Model Hierarchy Template Example Suprasystem System Subsystem Water Vehicles Cruise Ship Staterooms “bigger” “smaller” 11

  12. An INFORMATION SYSTEM is: • a type of fabricated system • used by one or more persons • to help them accomplish some task or assignment they have • An Information System: • includes the 3 aspects of a system • supports policies & procedures • has three additional components - data, people, procedures - in addition to the six general system components data people procedures 12

  13. An AUTOMATED INFORMATION SYSTEM IS: • a type of fabricated system • used by one or more persons • to help them accomplish some task or assignment they have • utilizes hardware and software in addition to data, people, procedures • …plus all the aspects of a system data people procedures software hardware 13

  14. DATA FUNCTIONS BEHAVIOR An AUTOMATED INFORMATION SYSTEM has three basic characteristics to consider: • DATA - input, output, or already stored electronically • FUNCTIONS - transformations or actions taken • BEHAVIOR - the observable effects from interaction (Plus the six system components: input, output, processing, control, feedback and boundary) 14

  15. Systems Analysis and Design is the process people use to create (automated) information systems data people SA&D software procedures hardware 15

  16. The people who do SYSTEMS ANALYSIS and DESIGN produce information systems that are: • used internally within the organization • sold commercially via mail/web order or retail store • imbedded in products 16

  17. What makes Systems Analysis and Design a difficult activity? • Initially, problem domains (areas) tend to have poorly defined BOUNDARIES • Problem domain SOLUTIONS are artificial • Problem domains are DYNAMIC • Problem domain solutions usually require INTERDISCIPLINARY knowledge and skills • Systems Analyst’s KNOWLEDGEBASE is continually expanding • Systems Analysis and Design is a highly COGNITIVE activity • Working with PEOPLE 17

  18. Systems Analyst’s interactions with people during Systems Analysis & Design Steering Committee* Users* SYSTEMS ANALYST Managers* Vendors Programmers & Tech. Staff Database Administrators Systems Analyst may be acting as a Project Manager for some of these interactions. * = Stakeholders 18

  19. What does a Systems Analyst do? Studies the problems and needs of an organization looking for improvement opportunities for: • increasing revenue/profit • decreasing costs • improving quality of service 19

  20. What is a Systems Analyst responsible for? Effective and efficient: • CAPTURE of input data • PROCESSING & STORAGE of data • DELIVERY of timely and accurate information 20

  21. Environments/Tools Methodologies Methods & Techniques Concepts & Principles Problem Solving & People Skills Skills and Competencies of a Systems Analyst • Functional Business Knowledge • Verbal & written communication skills • Systems Analysis and Design work experience PLUS: 21

  22. General Model of Information Systems Development (“Partnership”) Stakeholder Information System (6) Requirements (1) Continued Involvement (5) Design and Implementation Requirements Specification (3) Analysis Problem Definition Skills (2) Problem Solution Skills (4) Information Technology Staff 22

  23. Two (2) additional on-going activities: • Project Management • Project Documentation - “Scaffolding” Systems Analysis and Design Activities and Deliverables DESIGN ANALYSIS Activities: • Physical Design • Prototyping (optional) • Software Construction/Purchase • User Documentation - “Deliverable” • Testing • Training • User Acceptance • Conversion • Implementing the system Activities: • Systems Planning • Feasibility Study (optional) • Requirements Determination • Conceptual Design • User Acceptance • Prototyping (optional) Deliverables: • Requirements Specification • Prototype (optional) Deliverable: • Information System 23

  24. Systems Analysis and Design Project Observations • Labor intensive • Smallest team = you • Next smallest team = you and one other (user) • Average team = several systems analysts and users • Articulation of the business problem is difficult • Users and systems analysts come in all sizes and shapes 24

  25. Where Do Systems Analysis and Design Projects Come From? • Problems - “something needs to be fixed” • Opportunities - “good deals” • Directives - “do it…or else…” ... and are bounded by Constraints 25

  26. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC) • Planning • Feasibility Study (optional) • Requirements Determination • Conceptual Design • Physical Design • Construction and/or Purchase (prototype) • Training • Conversion - old to new • Implementation • Evolution - maintenance & enhancements Analysis Design and Implementation 26

  27. Sequential or Traditional SDLC “Begin” “End” 1. Planning for an information system 2. Feasibility Study (optional) 3. Requirements Determination (gathering) 4. Conceptual design 5. Physical design and/or purchase and/or prototyping 6. Conversion from current system to new/changed system 7. Training 8. Implementation 9. Evolution for enhancements and maintenance Waterfall or Staircase SDLC Planning “Begin” “End” Feasibility Study Requirements Determination Conceptual Design Physical Design Conversion Training Implementation Evolution 27

  28. Spiral SDLC Iterative SDLC SDLC Activities Planning Feasibility Study Requirements Determination Conceptual Design Physical Design Conversion Training Implementation Evolution Risk Analysis Verification/Test 28

  29. Boehm, 1988

  30. Principles to Guide Systems Analysis & Design • The system is for the user • A Work Breakdown Structure should be used (ie., SDLC) • Systems analysis and design is iterative and overlapping • Information systems are capital investments for the business • Project manager may have the authority to cancel a project • Project documentation is important all along the way • Senior management approval/support is very important 30

  31. TIME QUITTING 31