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ASC and AFIT. Soft-Side of Logistics Apr 04. Maj Steven Glazewski Maj John Reisner Air Force Institute of Technology School of Systems and Logistics steven.glazewski@afit.edu john.reisner@afit.edu 255-7777 x3274, x3270. Purpose.

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soft side of logistics apr 04

ASC and AFIT

Soft-Side ofLogisticsApr 04

Maj Steven Glazewski

Maj John Reisner

Air Force Institute of Technology

School of Systems and Logistics

steven.glazewski@afit.edu

john.reisner@afit.edu

255-7777 x3274, x3270

purpose
Purpose
  • Reexamine the ILS Elements, with particular attention paid to the challenges associated with Software-Intensive Systems.
integrated logistics support elements
Integrated Logistics Support Elements

Support

Equipment

Manpower &

Personnel

Supply Support

Maintenance Planning

Training &

Support

Computer

Resources

Support

Packaging, Handling

Storage, & Transportation

Technical Data

Facilities

DESIGN

INTERFACE

SYSTEM

definitions
Definitions
  • Logistics: Getting the right thing; to the right place; at the right time; in the right quantity; at the right price.
  • Acquisition Logistics: Activities that ensure supportability is considered throughout the acquisition process to minimize support costs; as well as activities that provide the user with resources to sustain the system in the field.
definitions5
Definitions
  • “Soft-side of Logistics”: Logistics planning and processes required to support the life cycle sustainment of software and software intensive systems

D041

software supportability what s involved
Software Supportability What’s Involved?

Development

Environment

Sustainment

Environment

Diagnostic/Operating

Systems Software

Ground Support

Equipment

Avionics

Software

Simulator

Software

hardware software
Hardware / Software
  • Significant Differences in Supportability Requirements!
    • Hardware
  • Tangible, Materiel Intensive
  • Deteriorates Over Time
  • Requires Preventative Maintenance
  • Problem Caused by Component Failure
    • Software
  • Intangible, Labor Intensive
  • Adapts Over Time
  • No Physical Preventative Maintenance Needed
  • Problem Caused by Embedded Error
software lifecycle
Software Lifecycle

Typical Software Lifecycle Cost/Effort Distribution

  • Support or Maintenance: 67-75%
  • Adaptive Changes
  • Corrective Changes
  • Software Enhancements
  • Development: 25-33%
  • Requirements Definition
  • Architectural Design
  • Detailed Design
  • Code / Implementation
  • Testing

Source: Pigoski 1997

software supportability guidance
Software Supportability Guidance

Interim Defense Acquisition Guidebook

- Para 2.8, Supportability

- Para 6.4, Command Control, Communications, Computers & Intelligence Support (C4ISP)

AFI 63-107, Integrated Product SupportPlanning & Assessment

- Attach #2, Product Support Management Plan

logistics management process

A

B

GOAL 4

Maintain/Improve Readiness

& Improve Affordability

GOAL 2

Design & Develop

Support System

SYSTEM

ENGINEERING

PROCESS

SYSTEM

ENGINEERING

PROCESS

Single Step or Evolution to Full Capability

Inputs to:

BLOCK II

  • CDD
  • TEMP

BLOCK III

Demonstrate

Demonstrate

  • APB
  • Contract

Supportability

Supportability

GOAL 3

Acquire & Deploy

Supportable System

& Life Cycle

& Life Cycle

Technology Opportunities & User Needs

Affordability

Affordability

Support

Strategy

IOC

Product Support Management Plan

Product Support Management Plan

Product Support Management Plan

Product Support Management Plan

Logistics Management Process

IOC

C

FOC

PRE-ACQUISITION

SYSTEMS ACQUISITION

SUSTAINMENT

Concept

Refinement

Technology

Development

System Development & Demonstration

Production & Deployment

Operations and Support

Low-Rate

Initial

Production

Full-Rate

Production &

Deployment

Component

Advanced

Development

Concept

Exploration

System

Integration

System

Demonstration

Sustainment

Disposal

Concept Decision

Design Readiness Review

FRP Decision Review

Readiness &

Produce Product

Total Ownership

GOAL 1

Design Product

for Supportability

Cost Objectives

Demil

&

Disposal

Acquisition

Strategy

Modifications and Technology Insertion

Support

Concept

Post Deployment Evaluations

Evaluate Alternative

Post Production Support

Logistics Concepts

Performance

Based

Produce

Support System

Logistics

integrated logistics support elements11
Integrated Logistics Support Elements

Maintenance

Planning

Maintenance Planning:

Software: - Should begin early in the acquisition process. Establishes software support concepts and requirements for the lifecycle of the system. Should address who will maintain the software, what facilities, personnel skill-sets, support equipment, support software, test resources, training facilities,… will be required to support

Should be documented in a Software Supportability Plan. Program Management Office oversees establishment of lifecycle development and support of the software system and support infrastructure. Includes development platforms, test platforms, software development tools, operating systems, data bases, Configuration Control Boards, Help Desks, Sustainment Support, Config Management, Software Code, Software Security,..

software maintenance
Software Maintenance
  • Approx. 80% of maintenance effort is expended to support changing user requirements and environments (adaptive & perfective software changes)
  • 20% maintenance effort expended to correct software problems (corrective changes)
failure rate trends
Failure Rate Trends

Hardware

Software (if software never changed)

Software (in the real-world of changing SW)

FAILURE RATE

TIME

Bathtub Curves for Hardware and Software, GSAM v3, p 12-8

cost during program life

~70 - 75%

Software system

~16%

Space system

~53 - 54%

Surface vehicle

~66 - 68%

~0%

Ship

~66%

~25 - 30%

~0%

~37%

~18%

~0%

~31%

~9%

~0 - 1%

~1%

~0 - 2%

Cost During Program Life

Operations &

Support

Program Cost %

Investment

RDT&E

Disposal

Time

Design

Manufacture

Logistics Support

LCC = Total Ownership Cost

integrated logistics support elements15
Integrated Logistics Support Elements

Manpower &

Personnel

Maintenance

Planning

Manpower & Personnel:

Software: Labor hours and skill levels required to develop, operate, maintain, and support systems over its lifetime. Involves choosing “In-House”, “Developer”, or “Outside Maintenance” activity to perform maintenance.Includes Systems Engineers to develop, day-day users, on-site IT personnel to install upgrades/reboot system, and programmers to modify system functional/operational performance as a result of a PR/SCR. Early identification is essential.

manpower personnel
Manpower & Personnel
  • Who Should Perform Software Maintenance?
    • Developer?
    • Outside Maintenance Activity?

Outside

Activity

Developer

manpower personnel17
Manpower & Personnel
  • How Many People Do We Need?
  • What Skill Levels Are Required?
  • Government or Contractor Resources?
maintenance performer advantages
Developer Pros:

Better Knowledge of System

Less Reliance on Documentation

Better Communications Developer & Maintainer

Continue working with known/proven organization

Separate Maintainer Pros:

Fresh Look at System Design

Better Documentation?

Identify Strong/Weak Points of System

Leaves Maintenance with Maintainers

Maintenance Performer Advantages

Developer Cons:

  • Poorer Quality - Documentation
  • Possible Loss of Development Staff / Poor Morale
  • Too Much Time Spent Perfecting System Design

Separate Maintainer Cons:

  • Slower Transition
  • Learning Curve for New Staff (Slow Transition)
  • User Support May Suffer - Credibility
integrated logistics support elements19
Integrated Logistics Support Elements

Supply Support

Manpower &

Personnel

Maintenance

Planning

Supply Support:

Software: In the Software world there are no spare/replacement parts to acquire, catalog, receive, store, transfer, and dispose. Supply Support for software consists of ensuring management actions, procedures, and resources are in-place to support customer requirements to fix software deficiencies (Software Deficiency Reports) or expand software system capabilities (Software Change Reports). Also to ensure changes are tracked/documented in a Configuration Control Board/Documentation. In other words to create/field a new software configuration.

supply support
Supply Support
  • Setup Process to Handle Customer Requests:
    • Software Deficiency Reports (SDR’s)
    • Software Change Requests (SCR’s)
    • Configuration Management
      • Configuration Boards and Control
supply support21

all for the

long haul

Supply Support

Helpdesk

Computer Resources

Programmers

Buildings

integrated logistics support elements22
Integrated Logistics Support Elements

Supply Support

Manpower &

Personnel

Maintenance

Planning

Support

Equipment

Support Equipment:

Software: All equipment required to support the creation, testing, operation and maintenance of a system. Support equipment includes: On-line maintenance and diagnostic programs, built-in test software, Test Program Sets, and support Software (operating systems, database management systems, configuration management, etc.).

support equipment
Support Equipment

Development

Environment

Network

all in a warfighting

environment?

Test/Pre-Production

Environment

Test/Development

Software

integrated logistics support elements24
Integrated Logistics Support Elements

Supply Support

Training &

Support

Manpower &

Personnel

Maintenance

Planning

Support

Equipment

Training & Support:

Software: Training and Training Support consists of the processes, procedures, training software (such as CBT and WBT) used to train civilian and military personnel to operate and support a software intensive system. Training support can also include management processes and procedures in-place to support training software problems or needed modifications.

training support
Training & Support
  • Who Should be Trained?
    • Functional Users
    • System Maintainers
      • True, like HW, but much different skill sets
    • System Administrators
  • How Should Training be Given?
    • Classroom Lecture
    • Computer Based Training (CBT)
    • System Tutorials
training support26
Training & Support
  • Who will Develop/Conduct Training? For How Long?
    • Developer
    • Maintainer
    • In-House Organization
    • Third-Party Contractor
  • Updated training for major releases!
  • Don’t Forget about Resources Needed Training!
    • PC’s
    • Servers
    • Software Engineers
integrated logistics support elements27
Integrated Logistics Support Elements

Supply Support

Training &

Support

Manpower &

Personnel

Maintenance

Planning

Support

Equipment

Technical Data

Technical Data:

Software: Technical Data consists of recorded information regardless of form or character consisting of manuals, system/system-related, and program documentation. (e.g. Operations/Training/Programming Manuals, Source Code, Testing Code, Software Specification and Design Documents, etc.)

technical documentation
Technical Documentation
  • Create/Update Life Cycle Documentation
    • J-STD-016
      • Identifies Life Cycle Documentation/Processes For Software Development
      • Replaces Mil-STD-498 Documentation/Process Requirements
    • IEEE/EIA 12207* or ISO/IEC 12207
      • Equivalent Commercial Process Description

*adopted by DoD; 3 vols.

technical documentation29
Technical Documentation
  • Configuration Management - Tracking
    • Software Change Requests (SCR)s
    • Software Deficiency Reports (SDR)s
    • Software Releases (Versions/Patches)
      • How Many Configurations are being Managed??
      • Both Planned and Previous...
cpins
CPINs
  • Computer Program Identification Number
    • The software equivalent of a NSN
    • Managed by OC-ALC/TILUC, Tinker AFB, OK
  • Automated Computer Program Identification Number System (ACPINS)
    • See CROSSTALK The Journal of Defense Software Engineering March 2000, pgs 16-17
    • http://www.stsc.hill.af.mil/crosstalk/2000/03/index.html
integrated logistics support elements31
Integrated Logistics Support Elements

Supply Support

Training &

Support

Manpower &

Personnel

Maintenance

Planning

Support

Equipment

Computer Resources

Support

Technical Data

Computer Resources Support:

Software:Computer Resources Support encompasses the facilities, hardware, software, documentation, manpower, and personnel needed to operate and support software intensive systems.

computer resources support
Computer Resources Support
  • CRS
    • Begin Early in the Life Cycle
    • Ensures Supportability Considered Throughout Life Cycle
      • Generational Change 18-24 Months
    • Develops Support Plans – Functional IPT
    • Required to ensure System Availability/Sustainability

RIP

computer resources support umbrella
Computer Resources Support Umbrella

Development

Facilities

Software

Engineers

Software Updates

Repair

Technicians

Computers

Operating Software

Weapons System

Simulator

Software

Helpdesk

Source Code

computer resources support34
Computer Resources Support
  • Computer Resources Support Team
    • Team of Functional Experts - Develops and Refines Computer Resources Support (CRS) Strategy
    • Begin Early in the Acquisition Process
computer resources support35
Computer Resources Support
  • Supporting Documents
    • C4ISP – Command Control Communications, Computers, and Intelligence Support Plan (Interim Guidebook, formerly DOD 5000.2-R)
    • CRLCMP – Computer Resources Life Cycle Management Plan (Computers) (AFR800-14 and DODI5000-2AFSUP1)
    • CRISD – Computer Resources Integrated Support Document (Software) (MIL-STD-2167A and DI-MCCR-80024A)

Older

Docs

dii coe impacts
DII/COE IMPACTS
  • DII/COE for Affected Systems:
    • Ensure Operating System and Windowing are Compliant with Latest Version of Kernal
      • E.G. Unix _._, Windows XP, Kernal 4.1
    • Ensure Mission Application Meets Min. Level 5 Compliance with goal of Achieving Level 8
    • Ensure Mission Applications are Installed Using the COE Tools
integrated logistics support elements37
Integrated Logistics Support Elements

Supply Support

Training &

Support

Manpower &

Personnel

Maintenance

Planning

Support

Equipment

Facilities

Computer Resources

Support

Technical Data

Facilities:

Software: Facilities consist of the permanent and semi-permanent real property assets required to support a system (Primary/COOP), including studies to define types of facilities or facility improvements, location, space needs, environmental requirements, connectivity to LAN/WAN, access to primary/backup power supply, security, and equipment. Includes computer terminals, servers (Development/Test/ Production), Fire-Walls/Intrusion detection services, …

facilities
Facilities
  • Facility Requirements
    • Identifies the Resources Needed to Create/Support a Sustainment Environment
      • Offices
      • Cubicles
      • PCs
      • LAN/WAN Connectivity
      • Computer Room
facilities39
Facilities
  • Organizational Maintenance Facilities:
    • Repair Shop
    • Work Benches
    • Computers/Servers
    • Special Diagnostic Equipment
  • Depot Maintenance Facilities:
    • Computers/Servers
    • Offices/Conference Rooms
    • Cubicles for Developers
integrated logistics support elements40
Integrated Logistics Support Elements

Supply Support

Training &

Support

Manpower &

Personnel

Maintenance

Planning

Support

Equipment

Packaging, Handling

Storage, & Transportation

Facilities

Computer Resources

Support

Technical Data

Packaging, Handling, Storage & Transportation:

Software: This element ensures processes are in place to distribute software and documentation updates to the system operators and maintainers. Software updates may be made available via web downloads, or mailed CD/disk.

packaging handling storage transportation
Packaging Handling, Storage, Transportation
  • Getting Software/Updates to the Field:
    • CD
    • Web-Download (not a HW option!)
    • Electronic Transfer (FTP/MQ Series)
    • IC-Chip Replacement
integrated logistics support elements42
Integrated Logistics Support Elements

Supply Support

Training &

Support

Manpower &

Personnel

Maintenance

Planning

Support

Equipment

Design

Interfaces

Packaging, Handling

Storage, & Transportation

Facilities

Computer Resources

Support

Technical Data

Design Interfaces:

Software:This element ensures processes and resources are in-place to establish and update interfaces between the software system and external systems such as GCCS. Configuration Management and documentation of Interface Requirements Specifications (IRS) are key elements required to document and track the establishment and update of interfaces.

design interfaces
Design Interfaces
  • Most likely thing to eat your lunch!
    • Who is in charge of the “seams” between systems?
  • C4ISP, Interface Control Documents (ICDs)
condition based maintenance plus cbm45
Condition-Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+)
  • CBM
    • Goal: To Perform Maintenance Only When Needed
    • Embedded Sensors or External Tests Evaluate the Health of a Weapons System
    • Utilizes Automatic Identification Technology (BIT-Test, Prognostic Health)
  • CBM+
    • Expands upon CBM to include Integration of Logistics Information Systems Technologies and Enhanced Business Processes
    • Encompasses Other Technologies, Processes, and Procedures that enabled Improved Maintenance and Logistics Practices
condition based maintenance plus cbm46
Condition-Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+)
  • Characteristics:
    • Hardware– embedded sensors; integrated data bus
    • Software – decision support and analysis capabilities, on/off equipment
    • Design – open system architecture; integration of maintenance and logistics information systems; interface with operational systems. Joint Total Asset Visibility (JTAV)
    • Processes– Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) program development; a balance of reactive, preventive, and predictive maintenance processes
    • Tools – Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETMs) (digitized data); automatic identification technology (AIT); portable maintenance aids (PMA); embedded, data based, interactive training
    • Functionality– fault: detection, isolation, and prediction
slide47

C-17 Maintenance Tools

Fault-Function

Indicator Panel

Support Equipment

Computer (SEC)

Maintenance

Management Panel

Condition-Based Maintenance

slide48

F-16 Maintenance Tools

F-16 Enhanced

Diagnostic Aid (EDNA)

f 22 portable maintenance aid

F

-

22 DataTrak

11 lb

F-22, Portable Maintenance Aid

Palm V

  • Verifies System Failures
  • Electronic Tech Manuals
  • Order Parts from Flight-line
  • Records Maintenance Action
f 35 lm star
F-35 LM-STAR

Prognostic Health Management

- Diagnose Health

- Predict Failures

- Linked to Ground

padhm generic approach

Prognostics & Diagnostics Download

Intelligent Air Vehicle

Operational Requirements

Repair

Required

Repair Recommendation

Aircraft Available

PHM

Replenishable Requirements

Onboard

Stock

Simulated World

Aircraft Turn-round & Repair

Graphical

Audio

Haptic

Maintenance Rehearsal

Return of

Defective Item

Integrated

Supply/

Engineering

Info systems

Supply of AOG item/ Replenishment of Ship Stock

Service/Industry

Support Organization

Automatic/JIT

Re-Supply

Automated Logistics Update

Lessons Learned/

Failure Rates

Wholesale

Stockpoint

Industry

PADHM Generic Approach

Aviation

Logistics

Board

JSF

slide52

SBL

SBIRS/L

SBL

S/B RADAR

AWACS

CAV

ABL

PREDATOR

Airborne

JFACC

JSTARS

B-2

JSF

F-22

RLV

THAAD

THAAD

Future combat operations

Provide the rightinformation at the righttime, in the rightway, so commanders can do the rightthings at the righttime in the rightway

RECCE

COMMERCIAL

SATCOM

COMMERCIAL

SATCOM

SBIRS/H

MILSTAR

GPS

GPS

GPS

GPS

NPOESS

RECCE

SMALL SAT

SBIRS/L

RECCE

SMALL SAT

S/B RADAR

COALITION

FORCES

NBC

THREAT

COUNTER AIR

THREAT

INDUSTRIAL

INFRASTRUCTURE

GOVERNMENT

INFRASTRUCTURE

key points
Key Points
  • Address software supportability issues early. Nearly 70 percent of a software system’s lifecycle cost is allocated to software support.
  • Initiate support planning early to ensure that the capability to support the software exists before it is needed.
  • Ensure the software developed is supportable:
    • Facilities, Tools, Documentation
    • Data Rights
  • Many similarities betweenhardware, software support,but many significant differences, too.
tips to live in the real world
Tips to live in the real world
  • Enforce contract deliverables
    • Especially if the maintenance organization is the same as the development organization
    • Assure the maintainers get to review data
    • Don’t delay down-streaming equipment, tools, etc.
  • Make use of “fall out money” to buy:
    • Data, tools & equipment, target systems, etc.
  • Champion formal planning documents
    • Most notably, the CRLCMP, if there is one
  • Take a maintainer to a meeting
  • Have version 1.1 built jointly with the maintainers