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T The Art of Fostering Goodwill A Destination´s Social Responsibility V.A. Heikkinen Sari Kortelampi Back to the Basis Looking for the Future! Dr. V.A. Heikkinen Research Director Principle Lecturer Tourism Research Centre of Lapland

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t the art of fostering goodwill a destination s social responsibility

TThe Art of Fostering GoodwillA Destination´s Social Responsibility

V.A. Heikkinen

Sari Kortelampi

slide2
Back to the Basis

Looking for the Future!

Dr. V.A. Heikkinen

Research Director

Principle Lecturer

Tourism Research Centre of Lapland

HAAGA-HELIA University of Applied Sciences

Tourism Research

Tel +358 40 578 1569

[email protected]

Research fields:

*FuTourism

*Lifescience

*Lifestyle & Experience Economy

*Chameleon Customer

*Ecomanagement

*Futufood & EcoServiceDesign

*Transmodern society

social responsibility in tourism

Social Responsibility in Tourism

Making

Goodwill

Transmodern Transmodern

markets company

Transmodern Transmodern tourist destination

slide4
Corporate Social Responsibility

CSR, also called corporate responsibility, corporate citizenship, responsible business and corporate social opportunity[1]) is a concept whereby organizations consider the interests of society by taking responsibility for the impact of their activities on customers, suppliers, employees, shareholders, communities and other stakeholders, as well as the environment. This obligation is seen to extend beyond the statutory obligation to comply with legislation and sees organizations voluntarily taking further steps to improve the quality of life for employees and their families as well as for

the local community and society at large.

The practice of CSR is subject to much debate and criticism. Proponents argue that there is a strong business case for CSR, in that corporations benefit in multiple ways by operating with a perspective broader and longer than their own immediate, short-term profits. Critics argue that CSR distracts from the fundamental economic role of businesses; others argue that it is nothing more than superficial window-dressing; still others argue that it is an attempt to preempt the role of governments as a watchdog over powerful multinational corporations.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_social_responsibility

we offer
We offer
  • The (first) jobs
  • Monthly salary + bonuses
  • Work & Career path
  • Training
  • Nice, easy/hard, emotional & physical (hand)work
  • Social occations
  • Cool, “Sexy” and trendy work and workplaces
  • Working suits

And our Industry pay the Taxes

we develope
We develope
  • Hospitality
  • Social Industry
  • Social Capital
  • Human Touch
  • Peace & Joy & Laugh
  • Communities/Areas/Cities
  • Resorts/Destinations
but the new employee
But the new employee
  • is less (brand)loyal
  • has no automatic respect for hierarchy
  • wants immediate result and feedback
  • is more creative than you
  • finds balance “work-life” essential
we offer for the customers
We offer for the Customers
  • Service
  • Safety
  • Nice, comfortable place to visit, stay and overnight
  • Food & beverages, design, second and third homes, places to escape, experiences, warm, emotions, easy work
  • Social occations
  • Cool, “Sexy” and trendy places
but postmodern tourist
But Postmodern Tourist
  • Others, however, have advanced that any form of responsible travel, if not ethics in general seem to remain a “myth” (Josephides, 2002).
  • Ethics don’t interest clients, Josephides (2002), the managing director of Sunvil Holidays, argues in the Travel Trade Gazette that
  • “British tourists have absolutely no interest in supporting a host country’s economy, respecting local customs or acting responsible while on holiday (…). They also want it cheap and to hell with who or what is exploited to get the price down”.
transmodern tourist
Transmodern tourist
  • No busy
  • Aesthetic
  • Harmony
  • Health-oriented lifestyle
  • Cleaness
  • Activity versus passiveness
  • Quality of life
  • Opposition to youth
  • Claims for high-quality
  • wellness (well-being + fittness)
  • services
transmodern tourist22
Transmodern Tourist
  • Due to the problems associated with mass tourism, tourists are moving away from the ‘traditional irresponsible’ tourists towards a more responsible (Krippendorf, 1987), ‘new’ (Poon, 1993), ‘ethical’, ‘environmentally responsible’, ‘good’ (Swarbrooke and Horner, 1999), ‘enlightened’(Tearfund, 2002), and ‘experiential type of tourists (King, 2002).
  • Some authors have argued that ethical principles create for tour operators that embrace them an opportunity for competitive advantage (Tearfund, 2001; Weeden, 2002; Goodwin & Francis, 2003),
transmodern tourist23
Transmodern Tourist
  • In sum, while some lament this ethical deficit (e.g, Rosaleen and Smith, 2003), others enthuse about the new ethical orientation of tourists (e.g., Tearfund, 2001; 2002), and while some have developed codes of ethics (e.g., WTO; WTTC; UNEP; TIAC), others have indicated their discontentment with such endeavors, and oppose “the vocabulary of the New Moral Tourist” (e.g., Butcher, 2002: 71).
transmodern company
Transmodern Company
  • In general, transmodern tourist company has created well-based standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues.
  • Ethics in transmodern company refers to what tourism stakeholders ought to do to make business sustainable; whereby host areas and their habitats and consumers, holiday makers, and the tourism industry engage in tourism actions that are mutually benefiting the present without presenting adverse impacts to the future.
slide25
From postmodern Staff Management

to Transmodern Leadership

new hospitality manager
New hospitality manager

Hospitality manager & Sustainable business manager

Guest

Manager

Employee

Shareholder

new hospitality manager27
New Hospitality Manager
  • From boss to people manager
new hospitality manager28
New hospitality manager

New management:

Operational, tactical and strategic thinker

slide29
WINTER TOURISM

EXPERIENCE

TRAVEL

CULTURE

TOURISM

Summer nights

Down hill ski

Museums

Galleries

Lappish culture

Ski

Santa

Snow

Food

Arctic

Christmas

Ice

Concerts

Safaries

History

SUMMER TOURISM

NATURE

TOURISM

Hunting

HEALTH

TOURISM

Well being

Fishing

Fittness

Wandring

Fishing

Wandrings

Golf

Ecotourism

Treatments

Cycling

Spas

Camping

Riding

WATER

ACTIVITIES

MEETING &

CONGRESS-

TOURISM

Incentive journeys

Concerts

Boat trips

Exhibitions

EVENT

TOURISM

Dancing

Fishing

Business

trips

Canoon

Festivals

Seminars

slide30
TRANSMODERN DEVELOPMENT

Balancing different functions

Ensuring other users’ quality of experience

Holding/improving

competitiveness

Enlarging/

differentiating the economic base

Ensuring residents’ quality of life

TRANSMODERN STRATEGIES: HOW TO COMBINE ‘UNCONNECTED’ STRATEGIES

TRANSMODERN DESTINATION: SPACE OF FLOWS

slide31
TRANDMODERN STRATEGY DESTINATION

MANAGEMENT

TOURISM STRATEGIES

  • Promotion of off-season events
  • Alternative city routes
  • Site management

VISITOR MANAGEMENT

  • Distribution of visitor flows in space and time
  • Organisation of ‘compulsory’ itineraries
  • Exploitation of less known attractions

THE TOURISM SIDE……….

slide32
TRANSMODERN

STRATEGY

DESTINATION

MANAGEMENT

THE TRANSPORT SIDE……….

TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT

  • Diversification of transport services
  • Optimisation of local transport network
  • Reduction of congestion peaks

TRANSPORT STRATEGIES

  • Restricting access to the city centre (by car, coach, etc.)
  • Integrating public transport fares and services
slide33
TOURISM AND TRANSPORT : A DOUBLE-SIDED COIN

TRANSMODERN

DESTINATION

STRATEGY

MANAGEMENT

TOURISM STRATEGIES

TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT

  • Diversification of transport services
  • Optimisation of local transport network
  • Reduction of congestion peaks
  • Promotion of off-season events
  • Alternative city routes
  • Site management
  • Reorganising spatial behaviour
  • Matching users’ competing needs
  • Improving quality of life and quality of visit
  • Reducing pollution and noise

VISITOR MANAGEMENT

TRANSPORT STRATEGIES

  • Distribution of visitor flows in space and time
  • Organisation of ‘compulsory’ itineraries
  • Exploitation of less known attractions
  • Restricting access to the city centre (by car, coach, etc.)
  • Integrating public transport fares and services
slide34
TOURISM

Mass tourism

ETHICS

From niches to the mass

From the mass to the niches

Ethical tourism

Sustainable tourism

Alternative tourism

Niche tourism

TOURISM

Abstract: Tourism is growing and so are its concerns. Under the umbrella of sustainable tourism several forms of tourism have emerged as alternatives to mass tourism. The conceptualization of ethical tourism in this paper calls for tourism concerns beyond niche markets, towards the exposure of tourism ethics to the mass tourists. An instrument was used to assess the ethical attitude of respondents towards ethical tourism. The results indicate that respondents are not ethical in their tourism orientation; however, the aspiration to become ethical was acknowledged through, among others, their willingness to pay more to secure some ethical criteria, and their predisposition to support ethical tourism. The acknowledged deficit of ethics in tourism calls for more tourism ethics exposure.

Mass tourism

Ethical tourism

Sustainable tourism

Alternative tourism

Niche tourism

slide35
Transmodern

Stakeholders

Economic Growth

Hosts

Guests

Ethical Tourism

Social Responsible Company

Chains

Training

Social

Development

Ethics in tourism as conducive tosustainable tourism for the mass market.

As tourism is a global phenomenon, critics of alternative types of tourism have indicated a need to go beyond niche marketing, into incorporating ethics in tourism in general (e.g., Butler, 1998; Klemm, 1992; Sharpley, 2000; Tribe, 2002; Liu, 2003).

the role of research training institutes
The Role of Research & Training Institutes

There appears to be a deficit of Social Resposibility in tourism and hospitality managers & (eMBA) curricula

from teaching
From teaching…..

STUDENTS

School

FACULTY INDUSTRY

references
References
  • Ascenciao, M. 2005. Learning material. Haaga Polytechnics.
  • Moufakkir, O. 2008. Beyond niche markets consumer attitude towards ethical tourism. Presenation in TTRA 2008, Helsinki.
  • Reuland, M. 2005. Presentation of Ecole Hotelliere de Lausanne. Presentation at Euhofa Confernce, Lausanne 10.11.2005.
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