TThe Art of Fostering GoodwillA Destination´s Social Responsibility V.A. Heikkinen Sari Kortelampi
Back to the Basis Looking for the Future! Dr. V.A. Heikkinen Research Director Principle Lecturer Tourism Research Centre of Lapland HAAGA-HELIA University of Applied Sciences Tourism Research Tel +358 40 578 1569 email@example.com Research fields: *FuTourism *Lifescience *Lifestyle & Experience Economy *Chameleon Customer *Ecomanagement *Futufood & EcoServiceDesign *Transmodern society
Social Responsibility in Tourism Making Goodwill Transmodern Transmodern markets company Transmodern Transmodern tourist destination
Corporate Social Responsibility CSR, also called corporate responsibility, corporate citizenship, responsible business and corporate social opportunity) is a concept whereby organizations consider the interests of society by taking responsibility for the impact of their activities on customers, suppliers, employees, shareholders, communities and other stakeholders, as well as the environment. This obligation is seen to extend beyond the statutory obligation to comply with legislation and sees organizations voluntarily taking further steps to improve the quality of life for employees and their families as well as for the local community and society at large. The practice of CSR is subject to much debate and criticism. Proponents argue that there is a strong business case for CSR, in that corporations benefit in multiple ways by operating with a perspective broader and longer than their own immediate, short-term profits. Critics argue that CSR distracts from the fundamental economic role of businesses; others argue that it is nothing more than superficial window-dressing; still others argue that it is an attempt to preempt the role of governments as a watchdog over powerful multinational corporations. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_social_responsibility
TRANSMODERN MARKETS ARE HERE Heart of Lapland
We offer • The (first) jobs • Monthly salary + bonuses • Work & Career path • Training • Nice, easy/hard, emotional & physical (hand)work • Social occations • Cool, “Sexy” and trendy work and workplaces • Working suits And our Industry pay the Taxes
We develope • Hospitality • Social Industry • Social Capital • Human Touch • Peace & Joy & Laugh • Communities/Areas/Cities • Resorts/Destinations
But the new employee • is less (brand)loyal • has no automatic respect for hierarchy • wants immediate result and feedback • is more creative than you • finds balance “work-life” essential
We offer for the Customers • Service • Safety • Nice, comfortable place to visit, stay and overnight • Food & beverages, design, second and third homes, places to escape, experiences, warm, emotions, easy work • Social occations • Cool, “Sexy” and trendy places
But Postmodern Tourist • Others, however, have advanced that any form of responsible travel, if not ethics in general seem to remain a “myth” (Josephides, 2002). • Ethics don’t interest clients, Josephides (2002), the managing director of Sunvil Holidays, argues in the Travel Trade Gazette that • “British tourists have absolutely no interest in supporting a host country’s economy, respecting local customs or acting responsible while on holiday (…). They also want it cheap and to hell with who or what is exploited to get the price down”.
. Goodbye and Hello Ibiza. Original culture
Transmodern tourist • No busy • Aesthetic • Harmony • Health-oriented lifestyle • Cleaness • Activity versus passiveness • Quality of life • Opposition to youth • Claims for high-quality • wellness (well-being + fittness) • services
Transmodern Tourist • Due to the problems associated with mass tourism, tourists are moving away from the ‘traditional irresponsible’ tourists towards a more responsible (Krippendorf, 1987), ‘new’ (Poon, 1993), ‘ethical’, ‘environmentally responsible’, ‘good’ (Swarbrooke and Horner, 1999), ‘enlightened’(Tearfund, 2002), and ‘experiential type of tourists (King, 2002). • Some authors have argued that ethical principles create for tour operators that embrace them an opportunity for competitive advantage (Tearfund, 2001; Weeden, 2002; Goodwin & Francis, 2003),
Transmodern Tourist • In sum, while some lament this ethical deficit (e.g, Rosaleen and Smith, 2003), others enthuse about the new ethical orientation of tourists (e.g., Tearfund, 2001; 2002), and while some have developed codes of ethics (e.g., WTO; WTTC; UNEP; TIAC), others have indicated their discontentment with such endeavors, and oppose “the vocabulary of the New Moral Tourist” (e.g., Butcher, 2002: 71).
Transmodern Company • In general, transmodern tourist company has created well-based standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues. • Ethics in transmodern company refers to what tourism stakeholders ought to do to make business sustainable; whereby host areas and their habitats and consumers, holiday makers, and the tourism industry engage in tourism actions that are mutually benefiting the present without presenting adverse impacts to the future.
From postmodern Staff Management to Transmodern Leadership
New hospitality manager Hospitality manager & Sustainable business manager Guest Manager Employee Shareholder
New Hospitality Manager • From boss to people manager
New hospitality manager New management: Operational, tactical and strategic thinker
WINTER TOURISM EXPERIENCE TRAVEL CULTURE TOURISM Summer nights Down hill ski Museums Galleries Lappish culture Ski Santa Snow Food Arctic Christmas Ice Concerts Safaries History SUMMER TOURISM NATURE TOURISM Hunting HEALTH TOURISM Well being Fishing Fittness Wandring Fishing Wandrings Golf Ecotourism Treatments Cycling Spas Camping Riding WATER ACTIVITIES MEETING & CONGRESS- TOURISM Incentive journeys Concerts Boat trips Exhibitions EVENT TOURISM Dancing Fishing Business trips Canoon Festivals Seminars
TRANSMODERN DEVELOPMENT Balancing different functions Ensuring other users’ quality of experience Holding/improving competitiveness Enlarging/ differentiating the economic base Ensuring residents’ quality of life TRANSMODERN STRATEGIES: HOW TO COMBINE ‘UNCONNECTED’ STRATEGIES TRANSMODERN DESTINATION: SPACE OF FLOWS
TRANDMODERN STRATEGY DESTINATION MANAGEMENT TOURISM STRATEGIES • Promotion of off-season events • Alternative city routes • Site management VISITOR MANAGEMENT • Distribution of visitor flows in space and time • Organisation of ‘compulsory’ itineraries • Exploitation of less known attractions THE TOURISM SIDE……….
TRANSMODERN STRATEGY DESTINATION MANAGEMENT THE TRANSPORT SIDE………. TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT • Diversification of transport services • Optimisation of local transport network • Reduction of congestion peaks TRANSPORT STRATEGIES • Restricting access to the city centre (by car, coach, etc.) • Integrating public transport fares and services
TOURISM AND TRANSPORT : A DOUBLE-SIDED COIN TRANSMODERN DESTINATION STRATEGY MANAGEMENT TOURISM STRATEGIES TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT • Diversification of transport services • Optimisation of local transport network • Reduction of congestion peaks • Promotion of off-season events • Alternative city routes • Site management • Reorganising spatial behaviour • Matching users’ competing needs • Improving quality of life and quality of visit • Reducing pollution and noise VISITOR MANAGEMENT TRANSPORT STRATEGIES • Distribution of visitor flows in space and time • Organisation of ‘compulsory’ itineraries • Exploitation of less known attractions • Restricting access to the city centre (by car, coach, etc.) • Integrating public transport fares and services
TOURISM Mass tourism ETHICS From niches to the mass From the mass to the niches Ethical tourism Sustainable tourism Alternative tourism Niche tourism TOURISM Abstract: Tourism is growing and so are its concerns. Under the umbrella of sustainable tourism several forms of tourism have emerged as alternatives to mass tourism. The conceptualization of ethical tourism in this paper calls for tourism concerns beyond niche markets, towards the exposure of tourism ethics to the mass tourists. An instrument was used to assess the ethical attitude of respondents towards ethical tourism. The results indicate that respondents are not ethical in their tourism orientation; however, the aspiration to become ethical was acknowledged through, among others, their willingness to pay more to secure some ethical criteria, and their predisposition to support ethical tourism. The acknowledged deficit of ethics in tourism calls for more tourism ethics exposure. Mass tourism Ethical tourism Sustainable tourism Alternative tourism Niche tourism
Transmodern Stakeholders Economic Growth Hosts Guests Ethical Tourism Social Responsible Company Chains Training Social Development Ethics in tourism as conducive tosustainable tourism for the mass market. As tourism is a global phenomenon, critics of alternative types of tourism have indicated a need to go beyond niche marketing, into incorporating ethics in tourism in general (e.g., Butler, 1998; Klemm, 1992; Sharpley, 2000; Tribe, 2002; Liu, 2003).
The Role of Research & Training Institutes There appears to be a deficit of Social Resposibility in tourism and hospitality managers & (eMBA) curricula
From teaching….. STUDENTS School FACULTY INDUSTRY
FACULTYINDUSTRY To learning…….. STUDENTS TRC
References • Ascenciao, M. 2005. Learning material. Haaga Polytechnics. • Moufakkir, O. 2008. Beyond niche markets consumer attitude towards ethical tourism. Presenation in TTRA 2008, Helsinki. • Reuland, M. 2005. Presentation of Ecole Hotelliere de Lausanne. Presentation at Euhofa Confernce, Lausanne 10.11.2005.