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Arjen K. Lenstra 1,2 joint work with Benne de Weger 2 1 Lucent Technologies’ Bell Laboratories 2 Technische Universite

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Progress in hashing cryptanalysis

Arjen K. Lenstra1,2

joint work with

Benne de Weger2

1 Lucent Technologies’ Bell Laboratories

2 Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

- Brief summary of cryptographic hash functions:
- purpose, design criteria, iterative design approach
- popular hash functions
- Cryptanalysis until August 2004
- Dobbertin, Dean et al.
- Recent cryptanalytic developments
- random collisions (Wang et al.)
- cascading iterative hashes (Joux, etc.)
- The possibility of undesirable constructions
- Conclusion
- what’s next?
- how to respond?

Brief summary of cryptographic hash functions

- purpose: fixed-size ‘fingerprint’ for message integrity applications
- design criteria for L-bit hash function H:
- H must be quickly computable
- given L-bit y, finding x with H(x) = y should take effort 2L
- (i.e., brute force): 1st pre-image resistant
- given x, finding xx’ with H(x) = H(x’) should also take 2L
- (i.e., same brute force): 2nd pre-image resistant
- grey area
- finding random x, x’ with xx’ and H(x) = H(x’)
- should take effort 2L/2: random collision resistant
- (can’t achieve better than this due to birthday paradox)
- outputs indistinguishable from ‘random’: random oracle

Brief summary of cryptographic hash functions

- purpose: fixed-size ‘fingerprint’ for message integrity applications
- design criteria for L-bit hash function H:
- H must be quickly computable
- given L-bit y, finding x with H(x) = y should take effort 2L
- (i.e., brute force): 1st pre-image resistant
- given x, finding xx’ with H(x) = H(x’) should also take 2L
- (i.e., same brute force): 2nd pre-image resistant
- finding not-entirely-random collisions should be hard too
- finding random x, x’ with xx’ and H(x) = H(x’)
- should take effort 2L/2: random collision resistant
- (can’t achieve better than this due to birthday paradox)
- outputs indistinguishable from ‘random’: random oracle

Iterative design of cryptographic hash functions

- Iterative L-bit hash function H:
- Compression function f:
- maps pair (512-bit block, L-bit string) to L-bit string
- Fixed L-bit string h0: initialization vector (IV)
- Input x written as concatenation of 512-bit blocks:
- x1 || x2 || x3 || … || xm
- where xm contains padding and x’s length (MD-strengthening)
- For i = 1, 2, …, m in succession, compute hi = f(xi,hi1)
- Resulting hash H(x) of x equals final L-bit string hm

- Nice property: if f is collision resistant, then H is collision resistant
- But (2004): falling apart as soon as collisions can be found

Popular cryptographic hash functions

- Most eggs in the Message Digest basket:
- MD4, L = 128
- tweaked version: MD5, L = 128
- length extension: SHA-0, L = 160
- surprise tweak: SHA-1, L = 160
- more tweaks, more length extensions:
- SHA-224/256/384/512, L = 224/256/384/512
- all in the same family, all iterative

Hashing cryptanalysis until August 2004

- MD4 considered broken: Den Boer, Bosselaers, and Dobbertin,
- 1996, ‘meaningful’ collisions
- MD5 considered weak: Dobbertin,
- 1996, collisions in the MD5 compression function
- Iterated hash functions for which compression function
- fixed points can be found (i.e., all hashes in the SHA family):
- Drew Dean et al. (1999) found 2nd preimage weakness
- (hidden in Dean’s thesis, never published)

- MD5 and up:
- security of practical applications not seriously questioned
- Strong belief in effectiveness of tweaks

Recent cryptanalytic developments in hashing

- August 2004:
- X. Wang et al.: actual random collisions in MD4 (‘no time’),
- MD5 in time 239, etc., for any IV
- A. Joux: cascading of iterated L-bit and perfect M-bit hash
- does not result in L+M-bit hash – as commonly believed

Last result particularly worrisome because of its simplicity

- cascading of iterated L-bit and perfect M-bit hash does not result
- in L+M-bit hash: collisions much faster than in time 2(L+M)/2

find y11, y12 with f(y11,h0) = f(y12,h0) = h1 in time 2L/2

find y21, y22 with f(y21,h1) = f(y22,h1) = h2 in time 2L/2

…

find yk1, yk2 with f(yk1,hk1) = f(yk2,hk1) = hk in time 2L/2

- Then: y1u||y2v||…||ykw for all u, v, …, w {1,2} all collide
- 2K- fold collision in time K2L/2

- With K = M/2:
- for any M-bit hash function there will be a pair among the
- 2M/2-fold collision that collides for that M-bit hash as well

simultaneous collision for L-bit hash and M-bit hash in time

(M/2)2L/2 + 2M/2, for iterated L-bit hash and any M-bit hash

Recent cryptanalytic developments in hashing

- August 2004:
- X. Wang et al.: actual random collisions in MD4 (‘no time’),
- MD5 in time 239, etc., for any IV
- A. Joux: cascading of iterated L-bit and perfect M-bit hash
- does not result in L+M-bit hash – as commonly believed
- A. Joux: actual random collision for SHA-0 in time 251
- E. Biham: cryptanalysis of SHA-1 variants

- October 2004, Kelsey/Schneier (based on Joux):
- 2nd preimage weakness in any iterated hash (improving Dean)

- February 7, 2005, NIST announcement:
- recent developments have no effect on SHA-1
- phase out SHA-1 by 2010, purely based on ‘Moore’s law’

Recent cryptanalytic developments in hashing

- August 2004:
- X. Wang et al.: actual random collisions in MD4 (‘no time’),
- MD5 in time 239, etc., for any IV
- A. Joux: cascading of iterated L-bit and perfect M-bit hash
- does not result in L+M-bit hash – as commonly believed
- A. Joux: actual random collision for SHA-0 in time 251
- E. Biham: cryptanalysis of SHA-1 variants

- October 2004, Kelsey/Schneier (based on Joux):
- 2nd preimage weakness in any iterated hash (improving Dean)

- February 14, 2005, X. Wang et al. (based on Wang/Joux/Biham):
- actual random collision for SHA-0 in time 239
- random collision possibility for SHA-1 in time 269 (or 266)

(269 < 280 – no reaction or retraction from NIST yet)

out, no news

out, no news

(never in)

out, an unpleasant surprise

??

Popular cryptographic hash functions

- Most eggs in the Message Digest basket:
- MD4, L = 128
- tweaked version: MD5, L = 128
- length extension: SHA-0, L = 160
- surprise tweak: SHA-1, L = 160
- more tweaks, more length extensions:
- SHA-224/256/384/512, L = 224/256/384/512
- all in the same family, all iterative

Even given the ‘substantial changes’ compared to SHA-1,

- to what extent can we still trust SHA-224/256/384/512?

How do the Wang et al. collision attacks work?

- Interestingly:
- people are still trying to figure it out
- V. Klima succeeded: improved the MD5 attack to 233

- Very roughly speaking:
- differential paths of compression function f are analysed
- find M0 and low Hamming weight 1,in and out such that
- f(M0,h0) = f(M0+ 1,in,h0) + out = h1 + out
- MD4 is so weak that out = 0 for low Hamming weight 1,in 0
- find M1 and low Hamming weight 2,in such that
- f(M1,h1) = f(M1+ 2,in,h1 + out)
- as a result M0||M1 and M0+ 1,in||M1+ 2,in collide
- for SHA-0, 1,in = 0 (and thus out = 0) to get ‘convenient’ h1,
- (later version omits M0 altogether: single block SHA-0 collision)

The possibility of undesirable constructions

- Often repeated argument:
- random collisions are not good for anything
- all collisions so far are ‘random’, so we’re fine

- Despite this argument:
- published random collisions used for actual attack examples
- involving integrity checks for downloadable files
- (Tripwire etc.)
- random collisions combined with iterative structure
- suffice for interesting X.509 constructions
- so far no truly ‘disastrous’ applications (imo)

- X.509 allows following format of data
- that will be hashed and signed:
- p1|| m || p2
- where:
- p1 contains header, distinguished names, and
- header of public key part,
- may assume that p1 consists of whole number of blocks
- m is an RSA modulus
- p2 contains public exponent and
- all other data until signature part

- For collision purposes, the obvious place

to ‘hide’ random data would be the RSA modulus

X.509 collision construction ingredients

- if collisions can be found for any IV, then collisions can be
- concocted such that they have same prescribed initial blocks
- proper (and identical) data appended to random data pairs turns
- random pair plus appendix into pair of valid RSA moduli
- arbitrarily selected data can be appended to colliding
- messages of same length, and they will still collide

- Identical stuff of one’s choice can be prepended to new collision
- Random collision can be promoted to meaningful data
- Identical stuff of one’s choice can be appended to any collision

1 & 3: due to iterative nature of hashes

2: a new trick for RSA moduli construction

- Construct colliding p1|| m || p2 and p1|| m’ || p2 as follows:
- Prepend:
- pick properly formatted p1 with names etc., whole # blocks
- compute p1’s intermediate hash value h
- ask X. Wang to find random collision m1, m2 with h as IV
- p1||m1 and p1||m2 now collide as well

- Promote:
- find m3 s.t. m1||m3 = m and m2||m3 = m’ are RSA moduli
- random m1, m2 extended to meaningful m1||m3 and m2||m3

- Append:
- p1||m1||m3 = p1|| m and p1||m2||m3 = p1|| m’ still collide
- and so do p1|| m ||p2 and p1|| m’ ||p2 for any p2

Applications of X.509 colliding certificates?

- Can get one certificate for the price of two
- Sign using one certificate, later deny based on other certificate
- Keys involved must have been generated simultaneously,
- so detection of this fraud attempt is easy
- No other attack scenarios that are facilitated by
- these types of collisions
- (see www.win.tue.nl/~bdeweger/CollidingCertificates)

Outsider’s X.509 collision assessment

- CA can no longer establish
- proof of possession of private key
- Does not seem to lead to dangerous attack scenarios
- (we refer to it as a ‘construction’, not an ‘attack’)
- Insider’s point of view may be different
- Greater danger if m and m’ could be made to contain
- different ‘subject distinguished name’ information
- This may be possible if ‘grey area’ is exploited
- Stay tuned –seems more is possible than we thought

- Problems can be avoided by making sure that:
- no one can predict any prefix of the hashed & signed part
- before hashing and signing take place
- (this is not part of the X.509 specs)

- The problem:
- for any m1 and m2 of same length N,
- find m3 such that m1||m3 and m2||m3 are secure RSA moduli

- The solution (for ‘any’ M > 0):
- repeatedly pick two M/2-bit primes p and q
- use Chinese remaindering to find M-bit m3 such that
- p divides m1||m3 and q divides m2||m3
- until (m1||m3)/p and (m2||m3)/q are both prime

N = 1024, M = 1024, 2048-bit moduli, 512-bit smallest factors:

secure

N = 512, M = 512, 1024-bit moduli, 256-bit smallest factors:

not secure

- Variants of our new RSA moduli construction allow:
- ‘Twin RSA’: RSA moduli (n, n+2), with factors of same size
- ‘predetermined Twin RSA’: RSA moduli (n, n+2) with
- fixed leading half bits, and factors of different sizes

Predetermined Twin RSA, 2048-bit example

- n= 80000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
- 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
- 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
- 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
- 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
- 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
- 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
- 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
- 396099A3 5F9D2B49 E7BB729E 9542A7B0
- A1FAD34B EE884199 E29A5DB4 E49DE1C8
- 279682F4 2A92FBFF 4F0F891F 65638997
- B28D26DA 10B7529A 40CFA534 8BB95BE8
- ADF4A21B 7DC562D4 93590D53 6B6124C5
- 6DB5D693 1004A7B4 C031C401 A4B6E1E8
- EA5C8362 E7B2DB3F BFDEF87D 75311FEA
- 7D9BF1C3 9E3E64DF 9163E468 6D5D2711
- and n+2 are secure RSA moduli, with independent factorizations
- two 2048-bit RSA moduli for just 1024 bits

- Variants of our new RSA moduli construction allow:
- ‘Twin RSA’: RSA moduli (n, n+2), with factors of same size
- ‘predetermined Twin RSA’: RSA moduli (n, n+2) with
- fixed leading half bits, and factors of different sizes
- These moduli look highly suspicious

- Questions:
- Can anyone break them?
- Can anyone break n given factorization of n+2 (or vice versa)?
- Good for what? (One to sign, other to encrypt? Backup key?)

- What’s next?
- Continued improvements of random collision attacks very likely
- Exploitation of ‘grey area’ looks promising
- More ‘interesting’ constructions may emerge

- How to respond?
- short term: case by case risk analysis, in most cases no need for
- changes, migrate in high risk cases only (to what? SHA-256?)
- long term:
- hard to defend long term application of SHA family
- also hard to defend application of SHA-1 until 2010
- current iterated approach has undesirable properties
- what about AES-like
- competition for AHS, ‘Advanced Hash Standard’?

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