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OHIO PESTICIDE APPLICATOR TRAINING. Unit 3 Formulations. The Ohio State University Extension. David J. Goerig Ag / Natural Resource Agent Mahoning County. What is a Formulation?. All the ingredients in a pesticide product. The Active Ingredients or Control Chemical.

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OHIO PESTICIDE APPLICATOR TRAINING


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the ohio state university extension

The Ohio State University Extension

David J. Goerig

Ag / Natural Resource Agent

Mahoning County

what is a formulation
What is a Formulation?
  • All the ingredients in a pesticide product.

The Active Ingredients or Control Chemical

The Inert ( Inactive) Ingredients.

Usually formulations are diluted in water, a petroleum-based solvent, or other diluents.

emulsifiable concentrates ec or e
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Emulsifiable Concentrates(EC or E)

Easy to handle, transport, and store.

High concentration.

Easily absorbed through skin.

Little agitation required.

Non abrasive.

Solvents may cause surfaces to deteriorate.

Do not plug screens or nozzles.

Flammable.

May be corrosive

Little visible residue

solutions s
Solutions (S)
  • Dissolve readily in a liquid solvent.

When mixed, forms a solution that will not settle out or separate.

Formulations of these pesticides usually contain the active ingredient, the solvent, and one or more other ingredients.

ready to use rtu
Ready to use (RTU)
  • Pre-mixed pesticide products.

Contain active ingredient and correct amount of solvent.

No further dilution is required.

Often 1% or less of active ingredient.

concentrate solutions c or lc
Concentrate Solutions (C or LC)
  • Must be further diluted.

Mix readily, no agitation required.

Limited number of formulations.

ultra low volume ulv
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Ultra-Low-Volume (ULV)

Relatively easy to handle, transport, and store.

High drift hazard

Specialized equipment required.

Little agitation required.

No plugging of screens and nozzles.

Easily absorbed through skin.

Not abrasive to equipment.

Solvents can deteriorate equipment parts.

flowables f or l
Flowables (F or L)
  • Insoluble solids mixed with water and other inert ingredients to form a suspension.

Easy to handle and apply.

Require moderate agitation.

May leave a visible residue.

aerosols a
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Aerosols (A)

Ready to use.

Practical for very limited uses.

Easily stored.

Risk of inhalation injury.

Convenient

Hazardous if punctured, overheated, or used near open flame.

Retain potency

Difficult to confine to target site or pest.

invert emulsions
Invert Emulsions
  • Water soluble pesticide with an oil based carrier.

Form large droplets that do not drift easily.

Commonly used in vegetation control along rights of way.

dusts d
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Dusts (D)

No mixing, ready to use.

Easily drift off target

Requires simple equipment

Does not stick to surfaces.

Effective in hard-to –reach indoor areas.

May irritate yes,nose, throat and skin.

Good choice where moisture from a spray would cause damage.

Difficult to get even distribution of material

baits b
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Baits (B)

Ready to use

Can be attractive to children.

Selective site application

May kill non-target animals.

Control pests that move in and out of an area.

Dead pests may cause odor problem.

granules g
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Granules (G)

Ready to use, no mixing.

Does not stick on foliage

May need to be incorporated into soil.

Low drift hazard.

Little hazard to applicator.

May need moisture to activate.

Simple application equipment.

Hazardous to non-target species.

Slow- release

pellets p or ps
Pellets (P or PS)
  • Similar to granular formulations

All the particles are the same shape and size.

wettable powders wp or w
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Wettable Powders (WP or W)

Easy to store, handle, and transport.

Inhalation hazard to applicator while pouring and mixing the concentrated powder.

Less likely than EC’s and others to cause harm to treated target.

Requires constant agitation in spray tank.

Easily measured and mixed.

Abrasive to many pumps and nozzles./ clogs nozzles.

Less skin and eye absorption than EC’s and other liquids.

Residues may be visible.

soluble powders sp or wsp
Soluble powders (SP or WSP)
  • Look like Wettable powders.

Dissolve readily and form a true solution.

Inhalation hazard.

Few pesticides available in this form.

microencapsulated pesticides m
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Microencapsulated Pesticides(M)

Increased safety to applicator.

Constant agitation necessary in tank.

Easy to mix, handle, and apply.

Special honey bee risk.

Releases pesticide over a period of time.

water dispersible granules dry flowables wdg or df
Water-Dispersible Granules(Dry Flowables)(WDG or DF)
  • Similar to wettable powders.

More easily measured and mixed.

Less inhalation hazard during pouring and mixing.

fumigants
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Fumigants

Toxic to a wide range of pests.

Target site MUST be enclosed to prevent gas from escaping.

Can penetrate tight areas.

Highly toxic to all living organisms.

Requires specialized protective and application equipment.

Single treatment will usually kill most pests.

adjuvants surfactants
Adjuvants / Surfactants
  • “Surface active ingredients”

Examples include: Wetting Agents, Emulsifiers, Invert Emulsifiers, SpreadStickers, Penetrants, Foaming Agents, Thickeners, Safeners, Compatibility agents, Buffers, Anti-foaming agents.

references
References
  • A guide for Private and Commercial Applicators Bulletin 825

APPLYING PESTICIDES CORRECTLY

The Ohio State University Extension