Introduction to Environmental Health. HS 425. Environmental Health. There are 3 primary factors that affect human health: Genetic Factors Personal behaviors Environment Healthy People 2010: “Promote health for all through a healthy environment.”. Physical Noise Radiation Heat / cold
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Environmental Health • There are 3 primary factors that affect human health: • Genetic Factors • Personal behaviors • Environment • Healthy People 2010: “Promote health for all through a healthy environment.”
Physical Noise Radiation Heat / cold Vibration ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS • Biological • Bacteria • Viruses • Protozoan • Chemical • Solvents • Metals • Toxic compounds • Pesticides
IMPACT OF GROWTH ON ECOSYSTEMS • Degradation of Land Resources • Overgrazing • Soil Erosion • Deforestation • Desertification • Wetland losses • Loss of Biodiversity • Killing or collecting wildlife for food, pleasure or profit • Habitat destruction
Water: a Precious Resource • 71% of Earth’s surface is covered with water • 97.4% is in oceans • 2% is unavailable • Less than 1 % is in fresh water bodies & water vapor • Ground water resources are vital
Water Pollution • Causes: • Rapid growth of human population • Industrial outputs • Contaminants: • toxic chemicals • human and animal excrements • heavy metals • pesticides • silt • fertilizers • Sources of pollution: • Point sources • Non-point sources
Groundwater • ½ of all Americans, 95% of farm families depend on groundwater for their drinking water needs • Groundwater resources are valuable: • Purity • Dependability • Costs of Transportation • Treatment costs • Groundwater pollution: • Waste storage, treatment or disposal facilities • Septic systems • Pipes, materials transport and transfer operation • Non-point sources of pollution • Groundwater depletion
Water Contaminants • 1. Biological • Bacteria : Typhoid fever, Cholera, Shigella (dysentery), Salmonella and E. coli • Viruses:Heapatitis A, poliomyelitis and Rotavirus. • Resistant to desinfection by chlorination • Protozoans:Giardia Lambia, Cryptosporidium, amoebic dysentery. • Resistant to desinfection by chlorination • 2. Chemical • PCBs, industrial solvents, pesticides • Lead • Nitrates
Why does sewage need to be treated? To improve the quality of wastewater so it can be discharged in waterways without seriously disrupting the aquatic environment or causing human health problems.
Recreational Waters In the year 2000, there were 1,266 beach closings, in Southern California, 92% due to elevated bacteria of undetermined causes. The remaining 8% was due to rain advisories and known sewage discharge.
Global Air Pollution Issues • Major causes: • Introduction of atmospheric pollutants in unusual amounts • Changing the concentrations of natural atmospheric components • Significant impacts: • Ozone depletion • Global warming
Air Pollution in Los Angeles We have some of the worst air in the nation, and the highest number of emergency visits caused by smog and air pollution Air pollution contributes to heart disease, lung disease, asthma and lung cancer
Indoor Smoking Mold Dust mites Radon gas Air Pollutants with Greatest Impact on Health • Outdoor • Ozone • Carbon monoxide • Airborne particles • Nitrogen oxides • Lead • Sulfur oxides • Diesel emissions
Air Quality Update The following table summarizes the South Coast Air Quality Management District's 1-hour ozone air quality for the current year and the previous year to this date, in terms of the number of days exceeding the Federal 1-hour ozone standard (exceeding 120 ppb) and the maximum ozone concentration measured. REGION: DATEof latestinformation 2003 (Year-to-Date)* 2002 (Year-to-Date) # of DaysAbove FederalOzone Standard OzoneMaximum(ppb) # of DaysAbove FederalOzone Standard OzoneMaximum(ppb) * Note that all 2003 data used in this report are preliminary and are subject to change in the validation process. South Coast Air District 10-23-2003 66 216 49 169
Solid Wastes Classification • Municipal • Hazardous Disposal methods • Unacceptable • Acceptable • Alternatives
FOOD SANITATION According to Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the following factors contribute to foodborne illness: • 63% Inadequate Cooling and Cold Holding Temperatures • 29% Preparing Food Ahead of Planned Service • 27% Inadequate Hot Holding Temperatures • 26% Poor Personal Hygiene/Infected Persons • 25% Inadequate Reheating • 9% Inadequate Cleaning of Equipment • 7% Use of Leftovers • 6% Cross-Contamination • 5% Inadequate Cooking or Heat Processing • 4% Containers Adding Toxic Chemicals • 2% Contaminated Raw Ingredients • 2% Intentional Chemical Additives • 1% Incidental Chemical Additives • 1% Unsafe Sources ***The numbers add up to more than 100% because more than one of the contributing factors are usually implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks.
HOUSING CONDITIONS The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services, EnvironmentalHealth Division is responsible for routinely inspecting all apartment buildings and condominiums with 5 units or more to ensure that residential housing within Los Angeles County is safe, sanitary, and fit for human habitation. As a new service, the latest inspection results for all properties from November 1, 2001 to the present is provided http://www.ladhs.org/housing/
EDUCATION AND GENERAL ASSISTANCE: · Nuisance and Health Related Complaint Abatement · Abandoned Vehicles · Used Oil Recycling · Hazardous Waste Reduction, Reuse, Recycling and Collection · Solid Waste Reduction, Reuse and Recycling · Pollution Prevention · Countywide Planning Guidance and/or Input · Land Use and Development Plan Reviews · Animal Shelter · Emergency and Disaster Response · Noise Control · Lead Abatement Oversight · Toxic Sites Mitigation Oversight · Groundwater Management WHAT DOES AN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SPECIALIST DO? INSPECTIONS AND ENFORCEMENT AT: · Restaurants, Groceries, and all Retail Food Service Facilities · Businesses that store Hazardous Materials or treat Hazardous Wastes · Public Swimming Pools at Hotels, Apartments, Schools, etc. · Underground Storage Tanks for Petroleum Products · Small Public Water Systems to enforce Safe Drinking Water Laws · Aboveground Storage Tanks for Hazardous Materials · Medical Waste Treatment and Transfer Facilities · Wastewater Disposal Systems · Solid Waste Systems · Labor Camps, Mobile Home Parks and other Housing · Public Kennels and Animal Boarding Facilities CONSTRUCTION ASSISTANCE: · Wells · Septic Systems · New or remodeled facilities as noted above