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Fran ç ois PASSEBON & Jack WILLIS HST 2006 present …. I pump, therefore I am. If you compress a gas in a pump, it becomes hotter, and if you release the pressure of this gas, it cools . Color is related to temperature . An animal, or a human body, for example, emits

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

I pump,

therefore I am

If you compress a gas in a pump, it becomes hotter,

and if you release the pressure of this gas, it cools

slide4

Color is related to temperature

An animal, or a human body, for example, emits

some infrared radiation that can be detected

by an infrared camera

slide5

I’m Gamov

I’m Dicke

Dicke and Gamov, two physicists, calculated independently in 1946 and 1948, that as the Universe has cooled, we should be able to detect microwave radiation throughout the sky …

slide6

Long

wave-

-length

Low

temperature

slide7

Max Planck, another physicist,

had given the explanation of the

shape of the radiation in 1900

The colder the body,

the longer the wavelenght

slide8

antenna

Penzias

Wilson

But, in 1964, the radiation predicted by Gamov

was finally detected, with this antenna …

… by Penzias and Wilson, two physicists

from the Bell labs, who got the Nobel prize in 1978

slide9

We’ve a lot of

work today !

In fact, the snow that one can see on an untuned TV

is also due in part to that radiation emitted by the

Universe as it was just 380,000 years old !

slide10

Original temperature of the radiation : 3000 K

Today, it is only 3 K

The cooling says how far the light has travelled

13,7 billion years : the age of the Universe

slide11

In 1992, the COBE satelite (Cosmic Background explorer)

gave the first image of the radiation

COBE was launched on November 18, 1989

slide12

In 1992, the COBE satelite (Cosmic Background explorer)

gave the first image of the radiation

 Before correction of the Earthmovement around the Sun

 Before correction of the microwaveradiation emitted by our own galaxy

 The final image of the microwaveRadiation

slide13

In 2003, the WMAP satelite gave a better resolution

of the small fluctuations of temperature

(WMAP = Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe)

WMAP was launched on June 30, 2001

slide14

Whereever it looked, WMAP measured the same data.

So, the big-bang must have taken place at the same time everywhere

slide15

But we can also observe small fluctuations of temperature, that may have lead to the formation of the galaxies

slide18

Where does the matter of the universe come from?

1 proton for every 1,000,000,000 photons

How did structures in the universe form?

Ripples + Dark Matter

slide19

E = mc2

Mass is just condensed energy

E → m

Albert Einstein, 1905

slide20

Whatwas the origin of this early matter (and antimatter) in the Early Universe?

Early Universe

Size: a → 0

Age: t → 0

Temperature: T → very large

T ~ 1/a, t ~ 1/T2

Energies: E ~ T

slide21

Based on Einstein’s Relativity + Dirac’s Quantum Theory + Feynman’s description in Quantum Field Theory

We conclude:

Every particle has an antiparticle

slide22

Why do we not see this in our evidence?

Dirac predicted the existance of antimatter in 1928

He predicted antimatter would have the same mass but opposite internal properties of matter

1957: particles and antiparticles spinning in same direction behave differently

1964: CP violation shown in weak decays of K0 mesons indicating matter does not behave exactly as antimatter.

Current evidence suggests:

Because ofasymmetry, almost all particles and

antiparticles were annihilated except for

a small number of particles

slide23

Density Budget of the Early Universe

● Total Density ~ critical

Theory of inflation, measurement

of microwave background:ΩTot = ~ 1

● Baryon Density small

Big-Bang nucleosynthesis, CMB:

ΩBaryons ~ few %

slide24

The Density Budget of the Universe

● Total Density ~ critical

Theory of inflation, measurement of microwave background:ΩTot = ~ 1

● Baryon Density small

Big-Bang nucleosynthesis, CMB:

ΩBaryons ~ few %

● Total Matter Density much larger

Clusters of galaxies

Ωmatter ~ 25%

● Mainly cold dark matter

Enables structure formation

slide25

What caused the formation of the structures of the universe and what was the origin of masses and forces?

Evidence indicates that as the universe cooled after the Big Bang….

These particles began to cluster….

And in these clusters developedpatterns….

Such asquarks….

Andatoms

slide26

How do these particles stay together to form structure?

FORCES

Standard Model:Gravity, Electromagnetic, Strong and Weak

slide27

Two Theories describe the forces:

Quantum Electrodynamicsand

Quantum Chromodynamics.

Quantum Electrodynamics (QED):

Electric chargeAtoms Molecules

Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD):

Colour chargeBaryonsNucleus

slide28

At current resolution we see the universe as it was ~ 380,000 years after the ‘Big Bang”

B I G

B A N G

What will we see next?

Perhaps…..