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Page 1069. Figure 28-1 The biosynthetic origins of purine ring atoms. Page 1071. Figure 28-2 The metabolic pathway for the de novo biosynthesis of IMP. Page 1072. Figure 28-3 The proposed mechanism of formylglycinamide ribotide (FGAM) synthetase. Page 1074.

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figure 28 1 the biosynthetic origins of purine ring atoms

Page 1069

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-1 The biosynthetic origins of purine ring atoms.
figure 28 2 the metabolic pathway for the de novo biosynthesis of imp

Page 1071

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-2 The metabolic pathway for the de novo biosynthesis of IMP.
figure 28 3 the proposed mechanism of formylglycinamide ribotide fgam synthetase

Page 1072

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-3 The proposed mechanism of formylglycinamide ribotide (FGAM) synthetase.
figure 28 4 imp is converted to amp or gmp in separate two reaction pathways

Page 1074

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-4 IMP is converted to AMP or GMP in separate two-reaction pathways.
figure 28 5 control network for the purine biosynthesis pathway

Page 1075

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-5 Control network for the purine biosynthesis pathway.
figure 28 6 the biosynthetic origins of pyrimidine ring atoms

Page 1077

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-6 The biosynthetic origins of pyrimidine ring atoms.
figure 28 7 metabolic pathway for the de novo synthesis of ump

Page 1077

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-7 Metabolic pathway for the de novo synthesis of UMP.
figure 28 8 reactions catalyzed by eukaryotic dihydroorotate dehydrogenase

Page 1078

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-8 Reactions catalyzed by eukaryotic dihydroorotate dehydrogenase.
figure 28 9 proposed catalytic mechanism for omp decarboxylase

Page 1079

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-9 Proposed catalytic mechanism for OMP decarboxylase.
figure 28 10 synthesis of ctp from utp

Page 1080

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-10 Synthesis of CTP from UTP.
slide11

Page 1080

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-11 Regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis. The control networks are shown for (a) E. coli and (b) animals.
slide12

Page 1082

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-12a Class I ribonucleotide reductase from E. coli. (a) A schematic diagram of its quaternary structure.
figure 28 12b class i ribonucleotide reductase from e coli b the x ray structure of r2 2

Page 1082

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-12bClass I ribonucleotide reductase from E. coli. (b) The X-ray structure of R22.
figure 28 12c class i ribonucleotide reductase from e coli c the binuclear fe iii complex of r2

Page 1082

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-12c Class I ribonucleotide reductase from E. coli. (c) The binuclear Fe(III) complex of R2.
figure 28 12d class i ribonucleotide reductase from e coli d the x ray structure of the r1 dimer

Page 1082

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-12d Class I ribonucleotide reductase from E. coli. (d) The X-ray structure of the R1 dimer.
figure 28 13 enzymatic mechanism of ribonucleotide reductase

Page 1083

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-13 Enzymatic mechanism of ribonucleotide reductase.
slide17

Page 1085

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-14a Ribonucleotide reductase regulation. (a) A model for the allosteric regulation of Class I RNR via its oligomerization.
slide18

Page 1085

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-14b Ribonucleotide reductase regulation. (b) The X-ray structure of the R1 hexamer, which has D3 symmetry, in complex with ADPNP as viewed along its 3-fold axis.

slide19

Page 1085

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-14c Ribonucleotide reductase regulation. (c) The R1·ADPNP hexamer as viewed along the vertical 2-fold axis in Part b.
figure 28 15 x ray structure of human thioredoxin in its reduced sulfhydryl state

Page 1086

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-15 X-Ray structure of human thioredoxin in its reduced (sulfhydryl) state.
figure 28 16 electron transfer pathway for nucleoside diphosphate ndp reduction

Page 1087

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-16 Electron-transfer pathway for nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) reduction.
slide22

Page 1087

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-17a X-Ray structures of E. coli thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). (a) The C138S mutant TrxR in complex with NADP+.
slide23

Page 1087

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-17b The C135S mutant thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in complex with AADP+, disulfide-linked to the C35S mutant of Trx.
slide24

Page 1089

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-18a X-Ray structure of human dUTPase. (a) The molecular surface at the substrate binding site showing how the enzyme differentiates uracil from thymine.

slide25

Page 1089

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-18b X-Ray structure of human dUTPase. (b) The substrate binding site indicating how the enzyme differentiates uracil from cytosine and 2-deoxyribose from ribose.

figure 28 19 catalytic mechanism of thymidylate synthase

Page 1090

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-19 Catalytic mechanism of thymidylate synthase.
figure 28 20 the x ray structure of the e coli thymidylate synthase fdump thf ternary complex

Page 1091

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-20 The X-ray structure of the E. coli thymidylate synthase–FdUMP–THF ternary complex.
figure 28 21 regeneration of n 5 n 10 methylenetetrahydrofolate

Page 1091

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-21 Regeneration of N5,N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate.
figure 28 22 ribbon diagram of human dihydrofolate reductase in complex with folate

Page 1091

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-22 Ribbon diagram of human dihydrofolate reductase in complex with folate.
figure 28 23 major pathways of purine catabolism in animals

Page 1093

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-23 Major pathways of purine catabolism in animals.
slide31

Page 1094

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-24a Structure and mechanism of adenosine deaminase. (a) A ribbon diagram of murine adenosine deaminase in complex with its transition state analog HDPR.

slide32

Page 1094

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-24b Structure and mechanism of adenosine deaminase. (b) The proposed catalytic mechanism of adenosine deaminase.
figure 28 25 the purine nucleotide cycle

Page 1095

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-25 The purine nucleotide cycle.
slide34

Page 1095

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-26a X-Ray structure of xanthine oxidase from cow’s milk in complex with salicylic acid. (a) Ribbon diagram of its 1332-residue subunit.

slide35

Page 1095

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-26b X-Ray structure of xanthine oxidase from cow’s milk in complex with salicylic acid. (b) The enzyme’s redox cofactors and salicylic acid (Sal).

figure 28 27 mechanism of xanthine oxidase

Page 1096

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-27 Mechanism of xanthine oxidase.
figure 28 28 degradation of uric acid to ammonia

Page 1097

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-28 Degradation of uric acid to ammonia.
figure 28 29 the gout a cartoon by james gilroy 1799

Page 1097

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-29The Gout, a cartoon by James Gilroy (1799).
figure 28 30 major pathways of pyrimidine catabolism in animals

Page 1098

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-30 Major pathways of pyrimidine catabolism in animals.
figure 28 31 pathways for the biosynthesis of nad and nadp

Page 1099

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-31 Pathways for the biosynthesis of NAD+ and NADP+.
figure 28 32 biosynthesis of fmn and fad from the vitamin precursor riboflavin

Page 1100

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-32 Biosynthesis of FMN and FAD from the vitamin precursor riboflavin.
figure 28 33 biosynthesis of coenzyme a from pantothenate its vitamin precursor

Page 1101

Voet Biochemistry 3e

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Figure 28-33 Biosynthesis of coenzyme A from pantothenate, its vitamin precursor.