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Factors Affecting Youth Awareness of Anti-Tobacco Media Messages. Komal Kochhar, M.B.B.S., M.H.A. Terrell W. Zollinger, Dr.P.H. Robert M. Saywell, Jr., Ph.D., M.P.H. Background & Rationale. Mass media anti-smoking campaigns are a promising and costly tool for health promotion.

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factors affecting youth awareness of anti tobacco media messages

Factors Affecting Youth Awareness of Anti-Tobacco Media Messages

Komal Kochhar, M.B.B.S., M.H.A.

Terrell W. Zollinger, Dr.P.H.

Robert M. Saywell, Jr., Ph.D., M.P.H.

background rationale
Background & Rationale
  • Mass media anti-smoking campaigns are a promising and costly tool for health promotion.
  • Their design has been guided primarily by focus groups.
  • Scientific research is limited regarding what factors impact awareness and effectiveness of media campaigns.
the indiana anti tobacco media campaign
The Indiana Anti-tobacco Media Campaign
  • Indiana Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Agency began a media campaign in 2002.
    • $8 million budgeted for the first 2 years
    • Television, radio, print and billboard media venues
  • Baseline data used for this study.
slide4

Venue

TV

Mediating

Factors

Confounding

Factors

Aware

Duration

Intensity

Radio

  • Message
  • Theme
  • -Emotion

Print

Billboards

Not

Aware

research aims
Research Aims
  • To identify mediating and confounding factors that are associated with youths’ awareness of anti-smoking messages in the mass media.
  • To evaluate whether such factors vary by media venue.

- Television - Print Media

- Radio - Billboards

methods
Methods
  • Telephone survey was conducted in 2001.
  • Representative sample of Indiana youths (n=610)
    • Stratified by age, gender, race, and geographical region.
    • Weighted to allow valid and reliable inferences to be made to the state’s youth population.
methods continued
Methods (Continued)
  • Analysis was conducted using SPSS 11.5.
  • To measure the association between media awareness for each media venue and numerous variables (knowledge, belief, smoking behavior, and demographic characteristics).
  • Using the chi-square test of independence.
methods continued1
Methods (Continued)
  • Instrument measured various tobacco related aspects (developed with a media expert):
    • Anti-smoking media awareness
    • Demographics
    • Tobacco-related knowledge
    • Tobacco-related attitudes / beliefs
    • Smoking behavior / susceptibility
survey approach
Survey Approach
  • Conducted by the IU Public Opinion Laboratory.
  • Telephone numbers selected with high probability of having youth living at home.
  • Interviewers first obtained permission from a parent/guardian before interviewing the adolescent.
  • Standard instructions given to both the parent/guardian and the targeted youth.
outcome variable awareness
Outcome Variable: Awareness
  • During the past 30 days, how many commercials have you seen / heard about NOT smoking cigarettes?
    • Asked separately for each media venue:
      • TV
      • radio,
      • print media
      • billboards
    • Responses dichotomized to none or some.
ad think
Ad Think?
  • Did this advertising make you think about whether or not you should smoke?

Almost three-fourths of the respondents agreed that the messages did make them think about whether or not to smoke.

results demographics
Results: Demographics
  • Awareness of anti-smoking messages among the youth:
  • Differed significantly by:
    • Age group: 15-17 years,
    • race and,
    • parental education
  • No significant association seen in the
    • Age group :12-14 years
    • gender
results demographics1
Results: Demographics
  • Youth in the 15-17 years age group were less aware of the messages on billboards.
  • White, non-Hispanic youth were more aware of messages on the print media and on billboards.
  • Youth with one or both parents who have higher education were more aware of messages on the radio.
results knowledge
Results: Knowledge
  • 14 items:
    • 11 items were agree or disagree
      • 9 showed no significant association
        • Range of correct responses: 80.6%-100.0%
      • 2 differed significantly
    • 3 items were factual statements with no significant association
        • Range of correct responses: 15.6%-40.6%
results knowledge1
Results: Knowledge
  • Those aware of messages on the TV and radiomore often agreed that people are affected by thecosts of tobacco-related problems.
  • Respondents aware of messages on the TVmore often agreed that tobacco is as addictive as other drugs, such as heroin and cocaine.
results attitudes beliefs
Results: Attitudes / Beliefs
  • 18 items under 4 broad categories:
      • Industry manipulation
      • Autonomy
      • Social norms
      • General exposure
    • 10 items showed no significant association
      • Range of correct responses: 77.1 % - 100.0%
    • 8 items differed significantly
results attitudes beliefs1
Results: Attitudes / Beliefs
  • Industry Manipulation:
    • Youth who were aware of messages on the TVmore often believed that tobacco ads influenced youth to smoke.
    • Youth who were aware of messages on the radio were less likely to attend events, like concerts and sporting events, even if they were sponsored by tobacco companies.
results attitudes beliefs2
Results: Attitudes / Beliefs
  • Autonomy:
    • Youth who were aware of messages on the radio were more likely to say they could easily refuse cigarettes, if offered.
    • Youth who were aware of messages on the radio were more likely to participate in community activities against tobacco use.
results attitudes beliefs3
Results: Attitudes / Beliefs
  • General Exposure:
    • Youth who were aware of radio messages more often agreed that exposure to second-hand smoke is a serious problem.
    • Youth who were aware of radio messages more often agreed that tobacco use by young people is a serious problem.
results attitudes beliefs4
Results: Attitudes / Beliefs
  • Youth who were aware of messages on TV were less likely to agree that smoking makes young people look cool.
  • Youth who were aware of messages on TV were less likely to agree that smoking makes young people more popular.
results smoking behavior
Results: Smoking Behavior
  • 8 items:
    • 5 items showed no significant association
    • 3 items differed significantly
  • Non-users were more aware of anti-tobacco messages.
results smoking behavior1
Results: Smoking Behavior
  • Youth who had NEVER tried cigarette smoking were more aware of the anti-smoking messages on billboards.
  • Youth who had NOT smoked cigars during the past 30 days, indicated they were more aware of the anti-smoking messages on billboards than those who had used tobacco products.
results smoking behavior2
Results: Smoking Behavior
  • Youth who had NOT smoked chewing tobacco in the past 30 days, indicated they were more aware of the anti-smoking messages on TV than those who had used tobacco products.
interpretation cautions
Interpretation Cautions
  • Recalled exposure vs. actual exposure.
  • Awareness does not always equal effectiveness.
summary
Summary
  • Most youth were aware of the TV media messages and two-thirds were aware of messages in other media venues.
  • Most youth agreed that the media messages did make them think about whether or not they should smoke.
  • Non-users were more aware of anti-smoking messages.
summary1
Summary
  • Only a few demographic characteristics and beliefs were significantly related to the level of message awareness, depending on the media venue.
  • The youth were generally quite knowledgeable and held strong anti-smoking / anti-tobacco beliefs.
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Media messages did not seem to have a great effect on knowledge or beliefs of youth, although the messages did make them think about whether or not they should smoke.
  • Additional success from media campaigns to prevent tobacco use in youth may require a targeted approach towards specific sub-population groups (like race and education status of parents).