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IV. Ecology Definitions Symbiotic Relationships Biogeochemical Cycling Ecological Succession Georgia’s barrier islands: An example of ecosystem dynamics A. Definitions Ecology The study of the interaction of populations of living organisms with other populations and with the environment

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iv ecology
IV. Ecology
  • Definitions
  • Symbiotic Relationships
  • Biogeochemical Cycling
  • Ecological Succession
  • Georgia’s barrier islands: An example of ecosystem dynamics
a definitions
A. Definitions
  • Ecology
    • The study of the interaction of populations of living organisms with other populations and with the environment
    • Population
      • A group of individuals, all of the same species
    • Community
      • A group of different populations
    • Physical factors in the environment
      • Oxygen concentration, salinity, temperature, rainfall, etc.
b symbiotic relationships
B. Symbiotic relationships
  • Symbiosis
    • A relationship between two species
    • Usually involves close physical contact
    • The major types are mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, and predator-prey relationships
b symbiotic relationships4
B. Symbiotic Relationships
  • Mutualism
    • A symbiotic relationship between two species
    • In which both species benefit
    • Example:
      • Microbes in the stomach of cattle are responsible for the digestion of cellulose (fiber in grass & hay)
      • The cattle benefit because they use the glucose from the cellulose digestion
      • The microbes benefit because they get a warm, moist, protected place to live
b symbiotic relationships5
B. Symbiotic Relationships
  • Commensalism
    • A symbiotic relationship between two species
    • In which one species benefits, and the other species is neither helped nor harmed
    • Example:
      • Small worms living attached to the shells of loggerhead sea turtles
      • The worms benefit because they get to travel through nutrient-rich waters as the sea turtle swims around (worms attached to the docks are stuck there)
      • There is no direct benefit to the turtle having worms stuck on its back, nor does there seem to be any harm done
b symbiotic relationships6
B. Symbiotic Relationships
  • Parasitism
    • A symbiotic relationship between two species
    • In which one species benefits, and the other species is harmed
    • The species that benefits is called a parasite, and is typically much smaller than the other species (the host)
    • Example:
      • Pathogenic microorganisms that cause disease in humans, animals, and plants
b symbiotic relationships7
B. Symbiotic Relationships
  • Predator-prey relationship
    • A symbiotic relationship between two species
    • In which one species captures & kills the other species for food
    • The species are generally about equal in size
    • The term is usually applied to animal species (or certain types of protozoan species)
    • Example:
      • Lions and wildebeests, cougars and rabbits, etc.
c biogeochemical cycling
C. Biogeochemical cycling
  • Definition
  • The carbon cycle
  • The nitrogen cycle
d ecological succession
D. Ecological Succession
  • Definition
    • A series of changes in the ecological community that inhabits an area or region
    • Occurs because the activities of living organisms (and nonbiological physical factors) change the conditions of a region (for example, soil chemistry) so that the region becomes more conducive to a different group of organisms
bare rock succession
Bare Rock Succession
  • An example of primary succession: Succession beginning in an area or surface on which there has never been life before
old field succession
Old Field Succession
  • An example of secondary succession: Succession that occurs in a region in which life has existed before, but in which the previous community structure has been disrupted
  • Frequently seen in North Georgia where cultivated fields (e.g. old cotton or soybean fields) are abandoned and no longer cultivated
d ecological succession15
D. Ecological Succession
  • Beach succession: Another example of secondary succession
  • The normal flora of humans: A medical example
e georgia s barrier islands
E. Georgia’s Barrier Islands
  • Formation of the barrier islands
  • Beach building and erosion processes
  • Beach  dune  shrub zone  maritime forest succession
  • Salt marsh / estuarine ecosystems
  • Web sites:http://www.sherpaguides.com/georgia/barrier_islands/index.htmlhttp://www.sherpaguides.com/georgia/coast/northern_coast/ossabaw_island.htmlhttp://web.utk.edu/~ctmelear/ossabaw/movies/ossabawscenery.html