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Confined Spaces. Rescuers Account for Over 60% of Confined Space Fatalities. Confined Space Tragedies. Two workers died from asphyxiation trying to shut off water flow to damaged pipe due to extremely low oxygen levels. Five farmers died trying to save one another in a manure pit.

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Confined Spaces

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confined space tragedies
Confined Space Tragedies
  • Two workers died from asphyxiation trying to shut off water flow to damaged pipe due to extremely low oxygen levels.
  • Five farmers died trying to save one another in a manure pit.
purpose of training
Purpose of Training
  • Ensure that employees are familiar with safety precautions and procedures associated with confined spaces
frequency of training
Frequency of Training
  • Upon initial assignment
  • Change in assigned duties or a change in permit space conditions
  • Inadequacies in the employee's knowledge or use of confined space entry procedures
training outline
Training Outline
  • Introduction
  • General Requirements
  • Equipment Requirements
  • The Entry Permit
  • Duties of Authorized Entrants, Attendants and Entry Supervisor
  • Rescue and Emergency Services
  • Contractors
  • Safe Entry Procedures
  • OSHA 29 CFR 1910.146: Permit-Required Confined Spaces
  • Ensure that employees can safely enter into and work within permit-required confined spaces

A Confined space:

  • Is large enough that an employee can enter and perform assigned work
  • Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit
  • Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy


  • tanks
  • pits
  • tunnels
  • vaults
  • boilers
  • sewers
  • shafts
  • ventilation ducts
  • crawl spaces

A permit-required confined space:

  • Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere
  • Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant
  • Internal configuration that might cause entrant to be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or floor that slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross section
  • Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard
atmospheric hazards
Atmospheric Hazards
  • Oxygen Levels - below 19.5 % or above 23.5%
  • Flammable/Explosive – exceeds 10% of Lower Explosive Limit (LEL)
  • Toxic Substances – exceed Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL)
  • Liquid or loose materials trap a worker.
  • Typically associated with loose materials in bins, silos, and hoppers.
  • Death can occur by asphyxiation, aspiration, or constriction.
  • "Entry" is when a person passes through an opening into a permit-required confined space
  • Any part of the entrant's body breaks the plane of an opening into the space
general requirements
General Requirements
  • Identify confined spaces and classify them as permit or non-permit
  • A permit-required confined space may be reclassified
  • Identify and evaluate the hazards of the permit spaces before employees enter
  • Inform exposed employees of the existence and location of and the danger posed by the permit spaces
general requirements16
General Requirements
  • Measures to prevent entry
  • Develop and implement practices and procedures necessary for safe entry
  • Provide and maintain all required equipment
  • Educate employees on safe entry procedures and equipment operation
equipment requirements
Equipment Requirements
  • Testing and monitoring equipment
  • Ventilating equipment
  • Communications equipment
  • Personal protective equipment
  • Lighting equipment
  • Barriers and shields
  • Equipment needed for safe ingress and egress
  • Emergency equipment
  • Other equipment for safe entry
the entry permit
The Entry Permit
  • Permit must be completed before entry is authorized
  • Entry supervisor must sign the permit
  • Permit must be made available at the time of entry so entrants can confirm that pre-entry preparations have been completed
the entry permit19
The Entry Permit
  • Duration may not exceed the time identified on the permit
  • Retain each canceled entry permit for at least 1 year to facilitate review of the program
  • Problems encountered during entry shall be noted on the permit so that appropriate revisions can be made to the program
contents of the entry permit
Contents of The Entry Permit

1. Permit space to be entered

2. Purpose of the entry

3. Date and the authorized duration of the entry permit

4. Authorized entrants

5. Attendants

6. Entry supervisor with a space for the signature

contents of the entry permit21
Contents of The Entry Permit

7. Hazards of the permit space

8. Measures used to isolate the permit space and to eliminate or control permit space hazards before entry

9. Acceptable entry conditions

10. Results of initial and periodic tests, names or initials of the testers and when the tests were performed

contents of the entry permit22
Contents of The Entry Permit

11. Rescue and emergency services

12. Communication procedures

13. Equipment (personal protective equipment, testing equipment, communications equipment, alarm systems, rescue equipment, etc.)

14. Any other information necessary in order to ensure employee safety

duties of authorized entrants
Duties of Authorized Entrants
  • Understand potential hazards
  • Use equipment properly
  • Communicate with attendant regularly
  • If the unexpected occurs – alert the attendant
  • Exit immediately if hazard develops
duties of authorized entrants24
Duties of Authorized Entrants

Alert the attendant whenever:

  • Entrant recognizes any warning sign or symptom of exposure to a dangerous situation
  • The entrant detects a prohibited condition
duties of authorized entrants25
Duties of Authorized Entrants

Evacuate the confined space when:

  • Order to evacuate is given by the attendant or the entry supervisor
  • Entrant recognizes any warning sign or symptom of exposure to a dangerous situation
  • Entrant detects a prohibited condition
  • Evacuation alarm is activated
duties of attendants
Duties of Attendants
  • "Attendant" - stationed outside permit space; monitors entrants
  • Knows the hazards including signs, symptoms and consequences of exposure
  • Continuously maintains accurate count of entrants in permit space
  • Remains outside the permit space during entry until relieved by another attendant
duties of attendants27
Duties of Attendants
  • Communicates with entrants to monitor entrant status and to alert entrants of the need to evacuate
  • Monitors activities inside & outside the space to determine if

- it is safe for entrants to

- remain in the space

duties of attendants28
Duties of Attendants

Orders evacuation immediately if:

  • Detects a prohibited condition
  • Detects the behavioral effects of hazard exposure in entrant
  • Detects a situation outside the space that could endanger the entrants
  • If the attendant cannot effectively and safely perform all the duties
duties of attendants29
Duties of Attendants
  • Summon emergency services
  • Keep unauthorized persons away
  • Inform entrants and entry supervisor if unauthorized persons have entered the permit space
  • Performs non-entry rescues when applicable and they have training
  • Performs no duties that might interfere with primary duty to monitor and protect entrants
duties of entry supervisor
Duties of Entry Supervisor
  • "Entry supervisor" - person responsible for determining if acceptable entry conditions are present, for authorizing entry, overseeing entry operations, and for terminating entry as required
  • An entry supervisor also may serve as an attendant or as an entrant, as long as that person is trained and equipped to do so
duties of entry supervisor31
Duties of Entry Supervisor
  • Knows the hazards including signs, symptoms, and consequences of the exposure
  • Verifies that the entry permit is complete, all tests have been conducted and all procedures and equipment are in place before allowing entry to begin
  • Verifies that rescue services are available and that the means for summoning them are operable
duties of entry supervisor32
Duties of Entry Supervisor
  • Removes unauthorized individuals who enter or attempt to enter the space
  • Ensures that acceptable entry conditions are maintained throughout the entry
  • Terminates entry and cancels the entry permit when the operations have been completed or a condition that is not allowed under the permit arises
rescue and emergency services
Rescue and Emergency Services
  • Self-Rescue
  • Non-entry Rescue
  • Only trained workers can enter space and only when there is another attendant
  • Call 911
rescue and emergency services34
Rescue and Emergency Services
  • Responds in a timely manner
  • Rescue provider must be proficient with confined space rescue-related tasks and equipment
  • Inform rescue provider of the hazards they may encounter on site
  • Provide the rescue provider with access to all permit spaces so they can develop rescue plans and practice rescue operations
rescue and emergency services35
Rescue and Emergency Services
  • Retrieval systems shall be used unless they increase the overall risk of entry or would not contribute to the rescue
  • Each entrant shall use a full body harness and a retrieval line if feasible
  • The other end of the retrieval line shall be attached to a mechanical device or fixed point outside the permit space
  • A mechanical retrieval device shall be available for vertical type permit spaces more than 5 feet deep
  • Inform contractor that workplace contains permit spaces and entry is allowed only in compliance with permit space program
  • Apprise contractor of the hazards that make the space a permit space
  • Apprise contractor of precautions for the protection of employees in or near permit spaces where contractor will be working
  • Coordinate with employer when both host personnel and contractor personnel will be working in or near spaces
  • Debrief employer at the conclusion of entry
  • Contractor shall inform the employer of the permit program that they will follow and of any hazards confronted or created
safe entry procedures
Safe Entry Procedures
  • Perform work outside of space if possible
  • Designate entrants, attendants, entry supervisors and atmospheric monitors, identify the duties of each, and assure training has been provided
  • Notify all departments affected by entry
  • Post signs and put up barriers to protect entrants from traffic and pedestrians
  • Specify acceptable entry conditions
safe entry procedures39
Safe Entry Procedures
  • Ventilate, eliminate, or control the space’s atmospheric hazards before entry into the space
  • Blind or disconnect and cap all input lines so that no hazardous materials can enter the space
  • Lockout/Tagout
  • When entrance covers are removed, guard the opening immediately
safe entry procedures40
Safe Entry Procedures
  • Test permit space before entry begins
  • Monitor permit space to determine if entry conditions are maintained
  • Test for oxygen, combustible gases/vapors, and toxic gases/vapors in that order
  • Observe status of other existing hazards and those created during entry operations
safe entry procedures41
Safe Entry Procedures
  • Authorized entrants can enter a permit space only after it’s been tested and found safe for entry
  • The entrant must know what equipment to use & how to use it
  • Provide at least one attendant outside the permit space for the duration of entry
safe entry procedures42
Safe Entry Procedures
  • Maintain acceptable conditions for duration of entry
  • Implement rescue and emergency procedures if necessary
  • Implement procedures necessary for concluding the entry
safe entry procedures43
Safe Entry Procedures
  • Review entry operations when there is reason to believe that measures taken may not protect employees and revise the program before subsequent entries
  • Review the permit space program within 1 year after each entry and revise the program as necessary to ensure that employees participating in entry operations are protected

1. T / F Rescuers account for over 60 %

of confined space fatalities?


2. T / F A confined space is an area large

enough that employee may enter

has a limited means of entry or




3. Name at least 3 examples of a confined

space. tanks

  • Pits, tunnels
  • Vaults, boilers
  • sewers , shafts
  • ventilation ducts,crawl spaces

4. T / F A permit required confined space is an area that contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere?



5. Is an atmosphere containing less than 19.5%, and above 23.5% oxygen dangerous?

Yes, below 19.5% O2 deficient

above 23.6% exsplosive

6. T / F Entry into a confined space is when any part of the entrants body breaks the plane of the an opening into a confined space.



7. How can a space that is classified as a permit required confined space be reclassified?

Remove hazards

8. If the hazard or hazardous atmosphere cannot be removed, what must be done before entering the space? Issue permit entry


9. T / F The attendant may leave the space entrance go to the bathroom?

False, Attendant can never leave unless


10. Who is responsible for determining if acceptable conditions for entry are present?

Entry Supervisor


11. May the entry supervisor also serve as the attendant?


12. What must an entrant to a permit required confined space wear?

Appropriate PPE, lanyard system


13. Can the attendant enter the confined space?


14. Who may enter the confined space for rescue?

certified personnel only