Chapter 7: Outline. Monosaccharides Monosaccharide stereoisomers Cyclic structures Reactions Examples and derivatives Di and oligosaccharides Polysaccharides Homo and heteropolysaccharides Glycoconjugates.
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Examples and derivatives
Di and oligosaccharides
Homo and heteropolysaccharides
Number of carbons
What is the name for a six carbon
What is the name for a five carbon
Is a ketotriose
Is an aldotriose
Glyceraldehyde exists in two
stereoisomeric forms because the
starred carbon is a stereocenter: it has
four different groups attached.
Stereoscopic view of glyceraldehyde
differ in configuration at only one stereo-
center (colored dot).
2. Anomeric C to right of O. Place OH up or down. Left on Fischer, up on ring.
3. In D- sugars, the last C is always up.
Four of the five bulky groups (OH and CH2OH on C 2,3,4,5)
on the ring are in the more stable equitorial positions!
+ Cu2O (red-orange)
Benedict’s reagent (a blue copper ion solution) also gives a
lactone. The blue color fades as reaction occurs.
Aldoses react with Tollen’s reagent (Ag(NH3)2+) to give a
lactone (cyclic ester). The silver ion plates out as a mirror.
Term CH2OH oxid’n
The most important reduced sugar is deoxyribose. (In DNA)
When the carbonyl of a sugar is reduced to an alcohol, alditols are produced. The two shown above are used to sweeten nonsugar gum.
Acetal link: R-O-C-O-R