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Chapter 26 Disaster Preparedness Natural Disasters Earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, and tornados claim many lives each year. You need to be informed to protect yourself and others. Earthquake

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chapter 26

Chapter 26

Disaster Preparedness

natural disasters
Natural Disasters
  • Earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, and tornados claim many lives each year.
  • You need to be informed to protect yourself and others.
earthquake
Earthquake
  • A sudden, rapid shaking of the earth caused by breaking and shifting of rock beneath the earth’s surface.
  • Can cause:
    • Buildings and bridges to collapse
    • Disrupt gas, electric, and phone service
    • Trigger landslides, avalanches, flash floods, fires, and tsunamis
what to do during an earthquake
What to Do During an Earthquake
  • If indoors, take cover.
  • If outdoors, find a clear spot away from buildings, trees, etc.
  • If in a vehicle, pull over and stay there with your seatbelt fastened until the shaking stops.
  • If you are trapped in debris, do not panic.
  • Learn to turn off your gas supply.
flood
Flood
  • With the exception of fire, floods are the most common natural disaster.
  • Pay attention to flash flood warnings.
  • Be especially aware of storms in the hills above you.
what to do during a flood
What to Do During a Flood
  • Be aware of the likelihood of flooding.
  • Listen to the radio or television stations for information.
  • If local authorities issue a flood watch, prepare to evacuate.
  • Do not walk through moving water.
  • Do not drive into flooded areas.
  • If flood water rises around your car and you cannot drive out, abandon your car and move to higher ground.
heat wave
Heat Wave
  • In extreme heat and high humidity, cooling of the body by evaporation is slowed.
    • Difficult for the body to maintain normal body temperature
  • People living in urban areas may be at greater risk.
what to do during a heat wave
What to Do During a Heat Wave
  • Stay in the coolest location.
  • Drink plenty of water regularly.
  • Never leave children or pets in vehicles.
  • Dress in loose-fitting clothes.
  • Protect your face and head when outdoors.
  • Avoid too much sunshine.
  • Avoid strenuous work during the warmest part of the day.
  • Spend at least 2 hours in an air-conditioned place.
  • Check on family, friends, and neighbors.
hurricane
Hurricane
  • A tropical storm with winds that have reached a constant speed of at least 74 miles per hour
  • Can bring torrential rains, high winds, and flooding
what to do during a hurricane
What to Do During a Hurricane
  • Listen to the radio or television stations for local information.
  • Secure your home.
  • If you are not evacuating, prepare for the worst.
  • If you are evacuating, prepare backpacks to take your disaster supplies to the shelter.
    • Fuel your vehicle and review evacuation routes.
landslides
Landslides
  • Occur in almost every US state when masses of rock, earth, or debris move down a slope
  • May be small or large and can move at slow or high speeds
  • Usually associated with periods of heavy rainfall or rapid snowmelt
what to do during a landslide
What to Do During a Landslide
  • Stay alert.
  • Consider evacuating an area susceptible to landslides.
  • Listen for unusual sounds.
  • Be alert when driving.
  • If you remain at home, move to the second level if possible.
tornado
A violent windstorm characterized by a twisting, funnel-shaped cloud

Spawned by a thunderstorm or sometimes a hurricane

Every state is at some risk

Tornado
what to do during a tornado
Go immediately to a basement or inner hallway without windows.

Get under a piece of sturdy furniture.

If outdoors, try to get indoors or lie in a ditch.

Go to a shelter area.

If you are in a vehicle, get out and take shelter in a nearby building.

What to Do During a Tornado
tsunami
Tsunami
  • A series of waves generated by an undersea disturbance
    • From the area of disturbance, the waves travel outward in all directions
  • Drowning is the most common cause of death due to a tsunami.
what to do during a tsunami
What to Do During a Tsunami
  • Listen to the radio or television for local information.
  • Stay away from the area until authorities say it is safe to return.
  • Do not go to the shoreline to watch for a tsunami.
volcano eruption
Volcano Eruption
  • A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a reservoir of molten rock below the earth’s surface.
  • When the pressure from gases and molten rock become strong enough to cause an explosion, eruptions occur.
  • Most injuries and deaths are due to ash, falling rocks, landslides, and floods.
what to do during a volcano eruption
What to Do During a Volcano Eruption
  • Follow evacuation orders.
  • If indoors, close all windows and doors.
  • If outdoors, seek shelter indoors and avoid low-lying areas.
  • Wear long-sleeved shirts and pants.
  • Use goggles to protect your eyes.
  • Use a dust mask.
  • Stay out of the area around the erupting volcano.
wildfire
Wildfire
  • Forest, brush, and grass fires can occur at any time of the year.
  • Occur mostly during long, dry hot spells
  • Majority of these fires are caused by human carelessness or ignorance
what to do during a wildfire
What to Do During a Wildfire
  • Listen to local radio or television for the latest emergency information.
  • If advised to evacuate, do so immediately.
  • Choose a route away from the fire hazard.
winter storm
Winter Storm
  • Heavy snowfall and extreme cold can immobilize an entire region.
  • Even areas that usually experience mild winters can be hit with a major snowstorm or extreme cold.
what to do during a winter storm 1 of 3
What to Do During a Winter Storm (1 of 3)
  • If indoors:
    • Listen to local radio or television.
    • Conserve fuel.
    • Eat and drink regularly.
    • Never use heat sources designed for outside use in a closed space.
what to do during a winter storm 2 of 3
What to Do During a Winter Storm (2 of 3)
  • If outdoors:
    • Dress warmly in layers.
    • Avoid overexertion.
    • Be aware of signs of frostbite and hypothermia.
    • Keep dry by changing wet clothing.
what to do during a winter storm 3 of 3
What to Do During a Winter Storm (3 of 3)
  • If trapped in a vehicle:
    • Pull off of the highway.
    • Stay inside the vehicle.
    • Run the engine and heater about 10 minutes each hour to keep warm.
    • Exercise.
    • Take turns sleeping.
technological hazards
Technological Hazards
  • Hazardous materials incidents
    • Chemicals are found everywhere.
    • They can become hazardous during their production, storage, transportation, and disposal.
what to do during a hazardous materials incident
What to Do During a Hazardous Materials Incident
  • Call 9-1-1.
  • Stay away from the incident site.
  • If caught outside, stay upstream, uphill, upwind.
  • If asked to evacuate, do so immediately.
  • If requested to stay indoors, follow all instructions.
nuclear power plants
Nuclear Power Plants
  • Nuclear power plants operate in most states.
  • Nearly 3 million Americans live within 10 miles of an operating nuclear power plant.
what to do during a nuclear power plant emergency
What to Do During a Nuclear Power Plant Emergency
  • Stay tuned to local radio and television for information.
  • Evacuate if you are advised to do so.
  • If told not to evacuate, stay inside.
  • Do not use the phone unless absolutely necessary.
  • If you suspect exposure, take a shower.
  • Seek medical treatment for any symptoms.
national security emergencies
National Security Emergencies
  • Terrorism
    • Use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of the criminal laws for the purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom.
  • Chemical and biologic agents
    • Have toxic effects
what to do during a chemical or biologic attack
What to Do During a Chemical or Biologic Attack
  • Listen to the local radio or television for instructions from authorities.
  • If instructed to remain inside:
    • Turn off all ventilation.
    • Seek shelter in an internal room.
    • Do not use major appliances.
  • Remain in protected areas.
  • If outdoors, try and get upwind and inside.
nuclear and radiologic weapons
Nuclear and Radiologic Weapons
  • Nuclear explosions can cause deadly effects such as blinding light, intense heat, initial nuclear radiation, blast fires, and secondary fires.
  • A dirty bomb is considered far more likely to be used by terrorists.
    • Combination of conventional explosives and radioactive material
what to do during a nuclear or radiologic attack
What to Do During a Nuclear or Radiologic Attack
  • Avoid looking at the flash or fireball.
  • If you hear an attack warning:
    • Take cover quickly.
    • If caught outside, take cover
    • Protect yourself from radioactive fallout by taking shelter.
    • Keep a battery-powered radio with you.
summary
Summary
  • Every American will likely be an unfortunate victim or witness to at least one disaster during his or her lifetime.
  • When a disaster strikes, you must be ready to act.