Chapter 23. Potentiometry. Reference Electrodes.
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A reference is an electrode that has the half-cell potential known, constant, and completely insensitive to the composition of the solution under study. In conjunction with this reference is the indicator or working electrode, whose response depends upon the analyte concentration.
Ideal Reference Electrode:
Silver/Silver Chloride Electrodes:
There are four types of metallic indicator electrodes:
Glass Electrodes: Potential
Crystalline Membrane Electrodes:
Liquid Membrane Electrodes:
Schematic representation of an automatic potentiometric titrator devised by Lingane in 1948.