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ASTM Committee D04 on Road and Paving Materials Standards Requiring Review for Mercury issues by Subcommittee. Subcommittee D04.21 on Specific Gravity and Density of Bituminous Materials. Standard D2041-03a Theoretical Maximum Specific Gravity and Density of Bituminous Paving Mixtures.

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slide1

ASTM Committee D04 on Road and Paving MaterialsStandards Requiring Review for Mercury issuesby Subcommittee

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

subcommittee d04 21 on specific gravity and density of bituminous materials
Subcommittee D04.21 onSpecific Gravity and Density of Bituminous Materials.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d2041 03a theoretical maximum specific gravity and density of bituminous paving mixtures
Standard D2041-03aTheoretical Maximum Specific Gravity and Density of Bituminous Paving Mixtures.

Currently shows no actual ASTM E1 thermometer, only that the thermometer shall conform to the requirements of Specification E1.

Add E2251 and reference to density thermometer as suitable ASTM 12C or 12F (or ASTM S12C or S12F).

Add E1137 and allow for a platinum resistance thermometer. Consider limiting devices to exclude thermocouples as calibration uncertainties will likely affect the precision of the method.

Currently addresses Residual Pressure Manometer or calibrated absolute pressure gage-

If the manometer is required to calibrate the absolute pressure gage, consideration to making it a gold standard might be given.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

slide4

Standard D6857-03Standard Test Method for Maximum Specific Gravity and Density of Bituminous Paving Mixtures Using Automatic Vacuum Sealing Method

Same temperature issues as D2041

Currently shows no actual ASTM E1 thermometer, only that the thermometer shall conform to the requirements of Specification E1.

Add E2251 and reference to density thermometer as suitable ASTM 12C or 12F (or ASTM S12C or S12F).

Add E1137 and allow for a platinum resistance thermometer. Consider limiting devices to exclude thermocouples as calibration uncertainties will likely affect the precision of the method.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

subcommittee d04 22 on effect of water and other elements on bituminous coated aggregates
Subcommittee D04.22 on Effect of Water and Other Elements on Bituminous-Coated Aggregates

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d3625 96 effect of water on bituminous coated aggregate using boiling water
Standard D3625-96Effect of Water on Bituminous-Coated Aggregate Using Boiling Water

Shows ASTM 7C or 7F (low distillation thermometer)

Suggestion: Leave ASTM E1 in standard and If the thermometer is to be used only up to 100 C (212 F) another thermometer added to ASTM E2251 can be chosen as the 7C and 7F have ranges to high for a liquid in glass substitute.

And/or allow any temperature measuring device with a tolerance of less than 1 degree C.

Discussion: If you are boiling distilled water and no corrections are being made for altitude, etc. why is a thermometer necessary at all?

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

subcommittee d04 23 on plant mixed bituminous surfaces and bases
Subcommittee D04.23 on Plant-Mixed Bituminous Surfaces and Bases

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d7064 04 standard practice for open graded friction course ogfc mix design
Standard D7064-04Standard Practice for Open-Graded Friction Course (OGFC) Mix Design

The only reference to mercury is in 13.1.2 “Apply a vacuum of 87.8 kPa (660mm (26 in) of mercury) for 10 min to saturate the compacted specimens to whatever saturation level is achieved.

This standard does not have a mercury procedure or mercury instrument, the word is used as part of a “unit of measure”. Therefore, it is appropriate and no action needs to be taken in the standard. - other than communicating resolution to ASTM Headquarters.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

subcommittee d04 25 on analysis of bituminous mixtures
Subcommittee D04.25 on Analysis of Bituminous Mixtures

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d1856 95a standard test method for recovery of asphalt from solution by abson method
Standard D1856-95aStandard Test Method for Recovery of Asphalt From Solution by Abson Method

Distillation method requires use of ASTM 7C or 7F. The method says nothing about correcting for emergent stem differences.

Suggestion- Labs should work split samples of asphalt, first using 7C/7F and then an IPRT immersed to the same depth as in Fig 1. See if there is a change in recovered asphalt. If so, procedure may have to revised to give temperatures for ASTM 7C/7F and different ones for different electronics.

Precision and bias statement may have to be re-worked.

ASTM 7C/7F may have to be made a referee thermometer or gold standard. See D402-02 for an example.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

slide11
Standard D6847-02Standard Test Method for Quantitative Extraction and Recovery of Asphalt Binder from Asphalt Mixtures

Standard requires a mercury-in-glass thermometer as calibration standard (10.1).

Discussion: Thermometer is to be “accurate” to 1 degree C. Does this mean tolerance or uncertainty?

A standardized electronic thermometer should be adequate for this test method.

Section 5.13 specifies a thermometer range 100-200 C.

Discussion: It does not specify type and probably does not need any editing except maybe addition of tolerance data.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

subcommittee d04 27 on cold mix asphalts
Subcommittee D04.27 on Cold Mix Asphalts

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

slide13
Standard D6704-01 Standard Test Method for Determining the Workability of Asphalt Cold Mix Patching Material

Test Method calls out an ASTM 114C thermometer, which is already a non-mercury thermometer. No changes need to be made for the mercury project.

Discussion- The standard calls for ASTM 114C low cloud & pour. The low cloud & pour thermometer is ASTM 6C (same range, shorter thermometer, 76mm immersion). The ASTM 114C is a total immersion thermometer and is named Aviation Fuel Freezing Point. I would suggest revising to thermometer used in round robin for research report.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

subcommittee d04 33 on formed in place sealants for joints and cracks in pavements
Subcommittee D04.33 on Formed-In-Place Sealants for Joints and Cracks in Pavements

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

slide15
Standard D5167-03 Standard Practice for Melting of Hot-Applied Joint and Crack Sealant and Filler for Evaluation

Test Method calls for an ASTM 2C or ASTM 2F.

Discussion- The standard can be revised to allow the use of non-mercury electronic devices. Good quality thermocouples may be adequate for use in this standard. Verification can be done by E220, or for IPRT’s E644.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

slide16

Standard D5249-95 Standard Specification for Backer Material for Use with Cold- and Hot- Applied Joint Sealants in Portland-Cement Concrete and Asphalt Joints

Test Method calls for an ASTM 11C or ASTM 11F.

Discussion- This thermometer has a 1” immersion depth, which is ideal for a bath with a 2” immersion depth. It is important that when calling out an alternative thermocouple, thermistor or IPRT, it is clear it needs to be a short sensor.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

subcommittee d04 42 on emulsified asphalt tests
Subcommittee D04.42 on Emulsified Asphalt Tests

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d244 04 standard test methods and practices for emulsified asphalts
Standard D244-04Standard Test Methods and Practices for Emulsified Asphalts

Standard calls for ASTM 19C & 19F, ASTM 17C & 17F, ASTM 15C & 15F, and ASTM 67C.

Suggestion- ASTM S67C is currently referenced in ASTM E2251. The ASTM 19C & F, ASTM 17C & F and ASTM 15C & F can be added. Addition of alternate sensing devices such as IPRT and thermistors is recommended.

Distillation method requires use of ASTM 7C or 7F. The method says nothing about correcting for emergent stem differences.

Suggestion- Labs should work split samples of asphalt, first using 7C/7F and then an IPRT immersed to the same depth as in Fig 1. See if there is a change in recovered asphalt. If so, procedure may have to revised to give temperatures for ASTM 7C/7F and different ones for different electronics.

Precision and bias statement may have to be re-worked.

ASTM 7C/7F may have to be made a referee thermometer or gold standard. (See D402-02 as an example)

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d6933 041 standard test method for oversized particles in emulsified asphalts sieve test
Standard D6933-041 Standard Test Method for Oversized Particles in Emulsified Asphalts (Sieve Test)

Standard calls for ASTM 17C and ASTM 19C.

Suggestion-. The ASTM 17C, ASTM 19C can be added to ASTM E2251. Addition of alternate sensing devices such as IPRT and thermistors is recommended. Thermocouples are not recommended for this standard.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d6999 04 standard practice for miscibility of emulsified asphalts
Standard D6999-04Standard Practice for Miscibility of Emulsified Asphalts

Standard calls for ASTM 17C or other thermometric device of equal accuracy.

Suggestion-. The ASTM 17C to ASTM E2251. Addition of alternate sensing devices such as IPRT and thermistors is recommended. Thermocouples are not recommended.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

subcommittee d04 43 on specifications and tests for tar and tar products
Subcommittee D04.43 on Specifications and Tests for Tar and Tar Products

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d6997 04 standard test method for distillation of emulsified asphalt
Standard D6997-04Standard Test Method for Distillation of Emulsified Asphalt

Distillation method requires use of ASTM 7C, as prescribed in Specification E1, or any other thermometric device of equal accuracy. The method says nothing about correcting for emergent stem differences. This thermometer is immersed further into the apparatus and the errors may not be as dramatic as for more shallow immersions.

Suggestion- Labs should work split samples of asphalt, first using 7C/7F and then an IPRT immersed to the same depth as in Fig 1. See if there is a change in recovered asphalt. If so, procedure may have to revised to give temperatures for ASTM 7C/7F and different ones for different electronics.

General statement about instrument of “equal accuracy” does not take into account the emergent stem temperature errors.

Precision and bias statement may have to be re-worked.

ASTM 7C/7F may have to be made a referee thermometer or gold standard.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d20 03 standard test method for distillation of road tars
Standard D20-03Standard Test Method for Distillation of Road Tars

Distillation method requires use of ASTM 8C. The method specifically states that no corrections for emergent stem temperature are to be made.

Suggestion- Labs should work split samples of asphalt, first using 8C and then an IPRT immersed to the same depth. See if there is a change in distillation fractions. If so, procedure may have to revised to give temperatures for ASTM 8C and different ones for different electronics.

Precision and bias statement may have to be re-worked.

ASTM 8C may have to be made a referee thermometer or gold standard. (See D402-02 as an example)

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d1665 98 standard test method for engler specific viscosity of tar products
Standard D1665-98Standard Test Method for Engler Specific Viscosity of Tar Products

Distillation method requires use of ASTM 23C, 24C and 25C. These Engler viscosity thermometers have specified emergent stem temperatures and 90 mm immersion.

Suggestion- Labs should work split samples of tar products, first using the Engler thermometers and then an IPRT immersed to the same depth. See if there is a change in viscosity due to the temperature measurements. Differences may be able to be calculated out.

Precision and bias statement may have to be re-worked.

ASTM 23C-25C may have to be made referee thermometers or gold standards.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

subcommittee d04 44 on rheological tests
Subcommittee D04.44 on Rheological Tests

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d 5 06 standard test method for penetration of bituminous materials
Standard D 5-06 Standard Test Method for Penetration of Bituminous Materials

This standard has already been revised.

Suggestion- We add ASTM 17C and ASTM 17F to ASTM E2251 standard. (Thermometers will be designated ASTM S17C and ASTM S17F)

Add ASTM number S63C or S63F and S64C or S64F which are the designations for the ASTM E2251 standard thermometers.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d113 99 standard test method for ductility of bituminous materials
Standard D113-99Standard Test Method for Ductility of Bituminous Materials

Standard specifies ASTM E1 thermometer ASTM 63C

ASTM E2251 specifies an ASTM S63C, which can be added to the standard.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d139 95 standard test method for float test for bituminous materials
Standard D139-95Standard Test Method for Float Test for Bituminous Materials

Standard specified ASTM E1 thermometer ASTM 15C or 15F, which are total immersion thermometers. The standard also requires the thermometer be immersed only 40 mm.

Like the distillation thermometers, there will be an error due to emergent stem temperatures. Therefore, a non-mercury glass thermometer may not be appropriate. Mercury is forgiving of improper immersion and testing may not show a bias to a PRT.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d2170 01a standard test method for kinematic viscosity of asphalts bitumens
Standard D2170-01aStandard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Asphalts (Bitumens)

Standard specified ASTM E1 thermometers ASTM 47C or 47F or ASTM 110C or ASTM 110F.

Standard uses term “mercury columns”.

A good IPRT meeting E1137 standards could be substituted.

ASTM E2251 can be revised to add above thermometers. Errors associated with using the thermometers as complete immersion (rather than total immersion) may be magnified.

Change term “mercury columns” to “liquid columns”

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d2171 01 standard test method for viscosity of asphalts by vacuum capillary viscometer
Standard D2171-01Standard Test Method for Viscosity of Asphalts by Vacuum Capillary Viscometer

Standard specified ASTM E1 thermometers ASTM 47C or 47F.

Standard uses term “mercury columns”.

A good IPRT meeting E1137 standards could be substituted.

ASTM E2251 can be revised to add above thermometers. Errors associated with using the thermometers as complete immersion (rather than total immersion) may be magnified.

Change term “mercury columns” to “liquid columns”

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d5801 95 standard test method for toughness and tenacity of bituminous materials
Standard D5801-95Standard Test Method for Toughness and Tenacity of Bituminous Materials

Standard specifies ASTM E1 thermometer ASTM 63C or ASTM 63F

ASTM E2251 specifies an ASTM S63C and ASTM S63F, which can be added to the standard.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d6084 06 standard test method for elastic recovery of bituminous materials by ductilometer
Standard D6084-06Standard Test Method for Elastic Recovery of Bituminous Materials by Ductilometer

Standard specifies ASTM E1 thermometer ASTM 63C or ASTM 63F

ASTM E2251 specifies an ASTM S63C and ASTM S63F, which can be added to the standard.

Standard allows use of Thermocouples which may not give adequately small uncertainty as compared to the ASTM 63C.

Suggest removing reference to ASTM E220 and thermocouples.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

slide33

Standard D6648-01 Standard Test Method for Determining the Flexural Creep Stiffness of Asphalt Binder Using the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR)

Standard specifies ASTM E1 thermometer ASTM 133C.

Suggestion: add reference to ASTM E1 and remove the “-00” from the designation in the standard.

Note1 discusses a calibrated PRT meeting Din Standard 43760 (Class A)- which may actually be a thermocouple standard.

Suggestion: Add standards E644 and E1137.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

slide34
Standard D6723-02 Standard Test Method for Determining the Fracture Properties of Asphalt Binder in Direct Tension (DT)

Standard specifies ASTM E1 thermometer ASTM 133C.

Suggestion: add reference to ASTM E1 and remove the

“-00” from the designation in the standard.

Note1 discusses a calibrated PRT meeting DIN Standard 43760 (Class A)- which may actually be a thermocouple standard.

Suggestion: Add standards E644 and E1137.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

slide35
Standard D7175-05Standard Test Method for Determining the Rheological Properties of Asphalt Binder Using a Dynamic Shear Rheometer

Standard specifies several types of temperature measurement devices.

Suggestion: re-work areas of document that discuss electronic thermometers. A thermocouple will probably not be accurate enough for this method. A PRT or thermistor are better choices.

Note1 discusses a calibrated PRT meeting DIN Standard 43760 (Class A)- which may actually be a thermocouple standard.

Suggestion: Add standards E644 and E1137.

Reference standards must be traceable to NIST.

Suggestion- Since ASTM is an international organization, it may be best to re-word, traceable to an NMI (National Metrology Institute, such as NIST).

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

subcommittee d04 46 on durability and distillation tests
Subcommittee D04.46 on Durability and Distillation Tests

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d243 02 standard test method for residue of specified penetration
Standard D243-02 Standard Test Method for Residue of Specified Penetration

Standard does not require any editing. However, you may want to specify construction of thermocouple to E230, or add references for IPRT (E644 and E1137)

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d402 02 standard test method for distillation of cut back asphaltic bituminous products
Standard D402-02Standard Test Method for Distillation of Cut-Back Asphaltic (Bituminous) Products.

Distillation method requires use of ASTM 8C or equivalent device. States ASTM 8C referee standard. The method specifically states that no corrections for emergent stem temperature are to be made.

Suggestion- Add references for PRT’s (E644 and E1137). Test to be sure a thermocouple is adequate for the precision of this method.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

standard d1754 97 standard test method for effects of heat and air on asphaltic materials
Standard D1754-97Standard Test Method for Effects of Heat and Air on Asphaltic Materials

This Method requires the use of an ASTM 13C thermometer and recommends one specific oven because “the severity of this test is affected by thermometer position,…”

Suggestion- Do not allow alternate devices without first thoroughly testing how that will affect the test. The manufacturer of the suggested oven may be the best source of information on how to achieve a non-mercury alternative without affecting the precision of the test.

This may be a method that must continue to require the ASTM 13C (for now). If so, the hazard caveat may need to be added to the standard.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

slide40
Standard D2872-04 Standard Test Method for Effects of Heat and Air on a Moving Film of Asphalt (Rolling Thin-Film Oven)

This Method requires the use of an ASTM 13C thermometer and has a very good example of the information users need for replacement PRTs.

Suggestion- You may want to give the user an idea of increased lag time when “sheathing” the ASTM 13C. In our experience, it will increase the lag from 3 minutes to 5-6 minutes.

Reference standards must be traceable to NIST.

Suggestion- Since ASTM is an international organization, it may be best to re-word, traceable to an NMI (National Metrology Institute, such as NIST).

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

subcommittee d04 47 on miscellaneous asphalt tests
Subcommittee D04.47 on Miscellaneous Asphalt Tests

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

slide42
Standard D70-03 Standard Test Method for Density of Semi-Solid Bituminous Materials (Pycnometer Method)

This standard requires the use of ASTM 63C (and allows ASTM 63F).

Suggestion- add reference to ASTM E2251 and allow ASTM S63C

If adding reference to an electronic, a thermocouple would not be precise enough for this method.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

slide43
Standard D3142-05 Standard Test Method for Specific Gravity, API Gravity, or Density of Cutback Asphalts by Hydrometer Method

This standard requires the use of ASTM 12C and ASTM 12F

Suggestion- add reference to ASTM E2251 and allow ASTM S12C and ASTM S12F

An equivalent thermometric device may not include thermocouples. Suggest changing E220 to E644 and suggesting IPRT or thermistor.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

slide44
Standard D3143-98 Standard Test Method for Flash Point of Cutback Asphalt with Tag Open-Cup Apparatus

This standard requires the use of ASTM 9C

Suggestion- The rate of rise for a mercury-in-glass thermometer will be different from other sensors. Labs should work split samples, first using ASTM 9C and then an IPRT immersed to the same depth. Be sure the IPRT has a short sensor length. This standard should not be revised without testing.

This standard may need to state the need of ASTM 9C as referee thermometer.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

slide45
Standard D3289-033 Standard Test Method for Density of Semi-Solid and Solid Bituminous Materials (Nickel Crucible Method)

This standard requires the use of ASTM 63C (and allows ASTM 63F).

Suggestion- add reference to ASTM E2251 and allow ASTM S63C

If adding reference to an electronic, a thermocouple would not be precise enough for this method.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com

slide46
Standard D6608-00 Standard Practice for the Identification of Trinidad Lake Asphalt in Asphalt Mixes

Test Method calls for an ASTM 2C or ASTM 2F.

Discussion- The standard can be revised to allow the use of non-mercury electronic devices. Good quality thermocouples may be adequate for use in this standard. Verification can be done by E220, or for IPRT’s E644.

Contact: Deanne Emory at Miller & Weber, Inc.

(718) 821-7110 email: DeanneMEmory@aol.com