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Alternation of generations in mosses and ferns. 1. Adaptation to living on land and the first land plants. 2. History of evolution of major plant types . 3. Alternation of generations. 4. Moss life cycle. 5. Fern life cycle. 1. Adaptation to living on land and the first land plants.

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alternation of generations in mosses and ferns
Alternation of generations in mosses and ferns

1. Adaptation to living on land and the first land plants

2. History of evolution of major plant types

3. Alternation of generations

4. Moss life cycle

5. Fern life cycle

1 adaptation to living on land and the first land plants
1. Adaptation to living on land and the first land plants

The land that land plants colonized was hostile to life. Soil development was minimal.

Land plants grow in an environment that does not support them.

They require several adaptations to be successful:

mechanical strength for support,

exposed light catching surfaces,

anchoring system,

conducting system for water,

system for obtaining mineral nutrients,

a way to restrict water loss in desiccating air,

a means of reproducing and dispersing on land

advantages of being small
Advantages of being small

An advantage of being small is that many of the requirements for living on land are minimized.

Close to the soil surface the environment can be almost aquatic – even if it does not rain continuously.

Then the principal adaptation required becomes the ability to withstand the dry periods between the wet.

devonian plant community
Devonian plant community

Devonian plant community found at Rhynie, in Scotland. A reed-like marsh, 370-380 million years ago.

Asteroxylon

MAIN FEATURES

Simple dichotomous branching

Sporangia

!5 to 30 cm tall

No roots

Stomata with guard cells

Most had a central vascular strand

Cuticle

Asteroxylon had leaves –without a vascular connection

lycopodium
Lycopodium

Lycopodium, club mosses, share many features with Asteroxylon, but they do have roots.

http://web.utk.edu/~flemin00/pteridology/pteridology.html

horsetails equisetum
Horsetails: Equisetum

Equisetum arvense

The ‘scouring rush’

Vegetative and reproductive axis bearing sporangia

http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/db2www/plant_indiv.d2w/PHOTO?keynum=36

history of plant groups
History of plant groups

2. History of evolution of major plant types

Fig. 17.3A

alternation of generations
Alternation of generations

Fig. 17.4

3. Alternation of generations

moss sporophyte
Moss sporophyte

Top of capsule

sporangia
Sporangia

http://departments.bloomu.edu/biology/chamuris/concepts2/labimg.html

Polypodium spp

sori

sporangia

A sorus

magnified sporangia
Magnified sporangia

Polypodium spp

Sporangia

Developing spores

gametophyte

Polypodium spp

Gametophyte

Developing sporophyte

Gametophyte

arrangement of sporangia on two ferns
Arrangement of sporangia on two ferns

In lines on a broadleaved type

At the end of the leaves

Adiantum

Asplenium

tree ferns
Tree ferns

Cibotium menziesiiin habitat in Hawaii.  Photo courtesy of Peter Richardson.

Cyathea australis with the uncurling croziers visible.  Photo courtesy of Scott Ridges

coal formation
Coal formation

Jungle-like forests of the Carboniferous were dominated by giant ancestors of club mosses, horsetails, ferns, conifers, and cycads.

Most of the plant fossils found in the coals and associated sedimentary rocks show no annual growth rings, suggesting rapid growth rates and lack of seasonal variation in the climate (tropical).

Anaerobic conditions and periodic inundations of the sea

early carboniferous
Early Carboniferous

Equator

Appalachians

Britain

Ice cap

late carboniferous
Late Carboniferous

Equator

Appalachians

Britain

Ice cap

fossil
Fossil

Lepidophylloides

Lepidophylloides is the name assigned to the leaves of the Lepidodendron tree .

Rock Type: Gray shale

Age: Middle Pennsylvanian Period, approx. 312 million years.

http://www.clearlight.com/~mhieb/WVFossils/Lepidophylloides1.html

sections you need to have read
Sections you need to have read

17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7

Courses that deal with this topic

Botany 113 Plant Identification and Classification

Botany 350 Introduction to Plant Geography

Geology 203 Evolution of the Earth