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The Campaign Process. Campaign Structure. Nomination campaign General Election campaign Personal campaign Organizational campaign Media campaign. Campaign Challenges. Communication (through media) and financing campaigns News Media
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Campaign Structure • Nomination campaign • General Election campaign • Personal campaign • Organizational campaign • Media campaign
Campaign Challenges • Communication (through media) and financing campaigns • News Media • try to manipulate: staged events, limited press conferences, spin • Debates • Focus on the “horse race” rather than substance
Campaign Financing • Large sums of $ needed to run • Not unusual to spend $1 million for Congress • Political money is regulated • Goal is to prevent any group or individual from gaining too much influence • Changes as result of Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002
Campaign Finance • Individual contributions • PAC contributions • Political party contributions • Candidates sources • Public funds • Independent expenditures • Soft money
Individual ContributionsBuckley v. Valeo • Supreme Court decision concerning the use of family resources • Court ruled that no limit could be placed on this amount • What’s the basis of the decision? • Violation of Freedom of Speech • Is this a concern?
PACs • Large proliferation of PACs after Watergate reforms • Are they good or bad for process? • Money buying influence….BUT • Money has always been in politics (and not disclosed)
Campaign Finance Reform • Tremendous growth of soft money contributions • Weak regulatory structure (FEC) • Appeal of John McCain • Enron
Major Provisions • Banning soft money contributions • Increasing amount of hard money that individuals may donate • New restrictions on advertising close to elections • Likely favors Republicans • Supreme Court heard challenge on 9/8/03.
2000 Election • Nomination battle • Bush and McCain • Gore and Bradley • Third party?? • Conventions • Debates • Campaign/Election • Controversy