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Proposed ENERGY STAR Specifications for Computer Monitors Craig W. Hershberg ENERGY STAR Office Equipment and Consumer Electronics www.energystar.gov
Agenda Computer monitor specification • Objectives • History • Specification highlights • Industry feedback • Next steps • Questions from EU - EPA agreement • Your comments / questions • Our questions for you
Agenda (cont’d) • Do you need specifics ? • Sleep, Off , On, Non-energy aspects • Test method • The time is right - LCDs
Agenda (cont’d) Logistics and other issues • How to collaborate when revising the specifications • Subsequent meetings • Summary of meeting, including action items and schedule for follow-up • Preliminary plans for other Office Equipment Products • procedure for collaboration
Objectives • Provide understanding and disclosure of draft monitor specification • Provide detailed answers to questions • Receive constructive feedback from you • Develop consensus on direction identified today • Agree on next steps
The history: • What monitor specs. exist in Europe now ? • GEEA • TCO • Reviewed independent monitor research from DisplaySearch, IDC, Europeans, and others • Met with monitor manufacturers at COMDEX, CES, DisplaySearch, and one-on-one (HANS-PAUL) • Analyzed self-reported data from manufacturers in STAR database • Independently measured monitor power use • Compared data with LBNL, ADL studies • Made recommendations to EPA. EPA weighed them with others and created draft specification.
Revising the ENERGY STAR Computer Monitor Specification:Highlights
Terminology ON: “active”, “full power” SLEEP: After x minutes of inactivity, monitor goes to lower power usage mode. “low power” OFF: “Standby” Remember: ON, SLEEP, AND OFF
Current ENERGY STAR Specification • Sets minimum wattage levels in low-power or “sleep” mode. • First Sleep Mode: 15 watts • Second or “Deep Sleep” Mode 8 watts
Why Revise the Current Specification? • Virtually all monitors meet current ENERGY STAR specification. • Large percentage of monitors are not sleep enabled (i.e., we are not getting the energy savings we could be). • Recent NRDC research shows energy use in “on” mode is 80 –90% of total kWh/yr. • For “on” and “off” modes, wide range of performance between similar-sized models. • Broad interest in limiting standby power use.
Goals for Revised Specification • Incorporate all 3 operating modes: • On (active) • Sleep (inactive) • Off (standby) • Performance-based specification. • One specification for all monitors, not one for CRTs, one for LCDs, etc. • Equal or better performance compared to non-ENERGY STAR labeled models.
The Core Requirements • Maximum allowable power consumption levels for each mode: On, Sleep, Off • Consensus test method for measuring active power usage. • Minimum consumer acceptance criteria (brightness, warranty, etc.) • Product and package labeling.
Why Active Power? • Feasible without negatively affecting product performance; in fact, some manufacturers are already meeting the proposed specifications • Limited additional energy savings potential in sleep and off modes; ; 90% of savings with proposed spec is from “active” • Not dependent on enabling rates • Allows a variety of technologies (e.g., CRT and LCD) to qualify
LCDs • Highlight a new technology in the marketplace • Additional benefits: • Space • Heat • Power consumption • Useful life • Installation • Disposal
On Mode: Active Power Use • Sets maximum allowable active power (W) Power as a function of mega pixels: W = 30 + 20X Example: monitor has resolution of: 1280 x 1024 = 1,310,720 or 1.31 mega pixels W = 30 + 20 (1.31) = 56 W
On Mode (cont.) • Technology neutral, agnostic to monitor type (LCD or CRT), size (15”, 17”, etc.). • If monitor yields more information, allow a little more power consumption.
Sleep Mode • Just one sleep mode level. • Maximum allowable power: 4 W • If multiple sleep modes, all must meet 4W requirement.
Sleep Mode Advisory Language • For consideration in updated ENERGY STAR computer specification: Maximum default time: 15 minutes Maximum recovery time: 5 seconds • Goal – increase likelihood that users actually use and are not annoyed by energy management features.
Off Mode • Synonymous with standby. • Power consumed when device is plugged in, but switched off: 2 W. • Working to harmonize with US Executive Order for Standby Power Consumption (1 watt executive order)
Non-energy Reqts. • Must be: bright enough, easy-to-read, reliable. • Brightness: minimum luminance of 100 nits (candelas/m2). • Contrast: minimum contrast ratio of 200:1. • Defective Pixels: 5 sub-pixel faults per million sub-pixels. • Warranty: at least 2 years. • User Interface: UI Standard recommended
Labeling Requirements ENERGY STAR logo must be displayed on: • top/front of product, • product package, • product literature.
What did the monitor industry think about our draft specification?
Key Industry Feedback Regarding Draft Specification • Industry expressed few concerns on having the new specification include requirements for all three operating modes: on, sleep, and off. • With few exceptions, industry agreed to a pixel per watt approach for on mode • EPA and industry agreed to define a common test method for measuring on mode power consumption. Manufacturers to test and submit data once test method is finalized
Key Industry Feedback Regarding Draft Specification (cont’d) • Should ENERGY STAR set one specification (one line) that covers all CRT and LCD monitors, or should the specification differentiate between CRTs and LCDs (2 lines) ? • Specification too stringent for CRTs, particularly for the desktop publishing environment (e.g., large screen sizes) • Wake-up time for monitor. Industry wants more guidance on how to measure/define wake-up time
Key Industry Feedback Regarding Draft Specification (cont’d) • Industry supports a single sleep mode specification, as opposed to the current sleep and deep sleep design • 4-watt sleep mode specification is agreeable • off mode of 2 watts may be difficult for LCDs
Key Industry Feedback Regarding Draft Specification (cont’d) • Several manufacturers questioned non-energy requirements • Specific concerns include: • Brightness level will be harder to meet for larger CRT monitors. • EPA should reference ISO standards for contrast ratio; CRTs and LCDs are measured differently. • Pixel faults only applies to LCD monitors. • Warranties could be a serious challenge with retailers, and may not work in international markets.
Key Next Steps for EPA and Industry • Establish test procedure • Industry to submit input to EPA on non-energy parameters • Manufacturers to test monitors according to new test procedure and submit data to EPA. • EPA to analyze new data and revise specifications, as necessary.
Changes to specification based on Industry Response • May need to allow more CRTs to qualify • large screen CRTs issue • Scale down non-energy attributes • Monitor wake-up time ? • Test procedure
Questions for You... • Were their questions or comments on the first draft? • Test procedure, non-energy attributes, etc.... • Like to submit next draft to you first provided we receive comments in timely fashion (3 weeks) • Can you provide data from European manufacturers?
The Specifics Sleep, Off, On Mode and non-energy attributes
Sleep Mode Current ENERGY STAR Specification: • First Sleep: 15 W; Second Sleep: 8W Proposed Specification: • Just one level : 4 W; simplifies spec • Under the new spec, sleep mode power is about 10% of active mode power • Roughly two-thirds of existing models can meet the proposed sleep requirement.
Sleep Mode Questions Verify consensus: • Only 1 tier (no deep sleep)? • Maximum power level : 4 W? • Advisory levels set at right levels? -Default time till sleep: < 15 minutes -Recovery time: < 5 seconds
Off Mode • Current specification: no standby power limit. • Current measured levels: some as high as 8-9 W, several at 4-5 W. • Proposed specification: 2 W. • Lots of models currently meet the 2W limit.
“Off” Mode Questions • Verify Consensus: • Is 2W the right level? • Beneficial to have same level set in Executive Order (not simply 1W)? • Suggestions on how to harmonize with European Union. (TCO)
What Does The Term “Energy Efficient Monitor” Mean? • Efficiency = Useful Output or Service Provided / Total Energy Input • Useful output or service could be diagonal inches of screen size, square inches of screen size, or total pixels displayed • Monitor not displaying information (providing useful output) in sleep or standby modes, so minimize power use at those times to achieve high overall efficiency • Can account for all energy use in all three modes separately or with a duty cycle • ENERGY STAR seeks to recognize top 25% efficiency
The Advantages of Pixels/Watt • Pixels/watt approach has a number of key advantages: • More technology neutral – avoids difference between viewable screen size and total • Screen area (square inches) unknown to consumers • Credits CRTs for their present resolution advantage, yet allows for very high resolution options like IBM’s new 9.1 million pixel LCD • Emphasizes display quality over physical size • Avoids difficulty of trying to estimate a representative “duty cycle” for all monitors • Simple, like lumens/watt (lighting) or CFM/watt (fans). Can also be characterized as watts/megapixel
Effect of Resolution and Monitor Type on Active Power Consumption for Monitors 17” and Less
Effect of Resolution and Monitor Type on Active Power Consumption for Monitors Greater than 17”
Resolution Category Total Pixels Maximum Power Use 640 x 480 VGA 307,200 37 watts 800 x 600 SVGA 480,000 40 watts 1024 x 768 XGA 786,432 46 watts 1280 x 1024 SXGA 1,310,720 57 watts 1600 x 1200 UXGA 1,920,000 69 watts 1800 x 1440 2,592,000 82 watts 2048 x 1536 3,145,728 93 watts Applying Active Power Spec to Standard Resolutions
Need for Consistent Measurement • STAR database contains self-reported data from manufacturers • Not all monitors measured under identical conditions in active or “on” mode • Depending on user settings and image displayed, CRT power variations can be +/- 30%. LCD variations can be +/- 50%. • ENERGY STAR has helped develop common test methods to the ventilation and lighting industries – may be able to bring standardization to monitor measurements as well.