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    Slide 1: Attitudes and Motivation in Intensive Second Language Programs ACLA- Saskatoon SK June 1, 2007

    Joseph Dicks, PhD Paula Lee Kristmanson, PhD University of New Brunswick Fredericton, NB, Canada Paula and JoePaula and Joe

    Slide 2:Setting the Context

    SL learning in Canada & New Brunswick Canada as a bilingual country (“Plan 2013”) Types of SL programming offered New Brunswick (NB) as a bilingual province SL program effectiveness in NB Experimentation with intensive programs Paula Plan 2013 - doubling % of bilingual grads nationally; 70% target for NB Program effectiveness - FSL programs are under review in particular core French where oral proficiency results have been well below target.Paula Plan 2013 - doubling % of bilingual grads nationally; 70% target for NB Program effectiveness - FSL programs are under review in particular core French where oral proficiency results have been well below target.

    Slide 3:Intensive French/ Intensive English

    An intensive 5-month language learning semester at grades 4, 5 or 6 (9-12 yr olds) Followed by an intensive 5-month academic semester (regular subject areas) Focused on building oral communication skills through a balanced literacy approach An enhancement of the Core French / Core English program ( increase fluency) Not content-based language instruction like immersion programs Students are assessed on language proficiency not content area knowledge PaulaPaula

    Slide 4:Intensive French/ Intensive English

    37 Grade 5 IF classes in urban and rural anglophone areas of the province 2 Grade 5 IE classes in one rural francophone area of the province Paula The 37 IF pilots are in both rural and urban parts of the province. The 2 IE pilots are in a rural francophone area. Joe will now discuss the purpose of the study and the methodology.Paula The 37 IF pilots are in both rural and urban parts of the province. The 2 IE pilots are in a rural francophone area. Joe will now discuss the purpose of the study and the methodology.

    Slide 5:Research Questions

    What are of students’ attitudes toward learning a second language? What is their perceived confidence level? To what degree are they willing to communicate (WTC) in their SL? Do these vary before and after the intensive language experience? Are there differences based on gender or program (IF or IE)? What are teachers’ perceptions of the students’ experiences with the intensive language semester? Joe: 4 key questions guided this research: 1, 2, 3 and 4. We were also interested in knowing whether there were differences based on gender or program affiliation (core French or core English). Today we will only be reporting on the gender questions. We also were interested in knowing what were teachers’ perceptions of their students experience in intensive language learning .Joe: 4 key questions guided this research: 1, 2, 3 and 4. We were also interested in knowing whether there were differences based on gender or program affiliation (core French or core English). Today we will only be reporting on the gender questions. We also were interested in knowing what were teachers’ perceptions of their students experience in intensive language learning .

    Slide 6:Background Literature

    Attitudes and motivation: Seminal work by Gardner & Lambert (1972); Gardner’s AMTB (1985); Gardner & McIntyre (1993) Perceived confidence, anxiety and willingness to communicate (WTC): Clément, Dornyei, Noels (1994) Dornyei (2003) Graham (2004) MacIntyre, Clément, Dörnyei and Noels (1998) MacIntyre, Baker, Clément, Donovan (2002) Gender differences and motivation Kissau (2006) MacIntyre, Baker, Clément, Donovan (2002) The study is grounded in previous research and theory on attitudes and motivation in SLL. In particular we note the seminal work of Gardner and Lambert and in fact have adapted Gardner’s Attitude and Motivation Test Battery (revised in 1985). This work is also informed by the seminal work of MacIntyre, Dornyei and Noels in the areas of confidence, anxiety and willingness to communicate. We also hope to build on the work done by Kissau and MacIntyre et al as it relates to gender and motivation in SLL. The study is grounded in previous research and theory on attitudes and motivation in SLL. In particular we note the seminal work of Gardner and Lambert and in fact have adapted Gardner’s Attitude and Motivation Test Battery (revised in 1985). This work is also informed by the seminal work of MacIntyre, Dornyei and Noels in the areas of confidence, anxiety and willingness to communicate. We also hope to build on the work done by Kissau and MacIntyre et al as it relates to gender and motivation in SLL.

    Slide 7:Intensive Language Learning

    Kristmanson (2006) MacFarlane (2005) MacFarlane, Peters & Wesche (2004) Netten & Germain (2002 and elsewhere) Finally, our research is informed by and we anticipate will build upon research in the area of intensive SLL.Finally, our research is informed by and we anticipate will build upon research in the area of intensive SLL.

    Slide 8:Methodology

    Pre and Post intensive semester survey related to 3 major themes: motivation & attitudes, confidence, and language use (adapted from Gardner, 1985) Distributed to all students enrolled in IF and IE pilots in the province (37 anglophone and 2 francophone schools; 711 students) Return rate: 83% return rate for both pre and post semester surveys (590/711 students; 31/36 classes) Joe 645/711 actually returned the post-surveys but for comparison purposes only classes that returned both pre and post surveys were used; therefore 83%Joe 645/711 actually returned the post-surveys but for comparison purposes only classes that returned both pre and post surveys were used; therefore 83%

    Slide 9:Methodology

    Survey items 15 statements (e.g.,. I wish I could speak French perfectly) with responses according to a 7 pt Likert-type scale (1- strongly disagree -> 7- strongly agree) 7 sentence completion items, e.g., When I come to a Fr./Eng. TV channel, I: change the channel right away. watch the program for a short time. watch the entire program. Joe: The surveys were comprised of 22 items in total: 15 Likert type response statements and 7 sentence completion items.Joe: The surveys were comprised of 22 items in total: 15 Likert type response statements and 7 sentence completion items.

    Slide 10:Methodology

    One-on-one interviews with 8 teachers and 31 students at the end of the intensive experience: Teachers were selected randomly- one per district (2 from one larger district) 3 students per class, selected by teachers based on performance in the intensive semester (1 above average, 1 average, 1 below average student) Joe: We also conducted face to face interviews with 31 studetns and 8 teachersJoe: We also conducted face to face interviews with 31 studetns and 8 teachers

    Slide 11:Methodology

    Student interviews were based on responses to a word scatter activity Teacher interviews were semi-structured, based on questions related to survey themes e.g., What kind of student attitudes towards the French language did you notice at different points in the program? e.g., What did you notice about the confidence levels of students coming into the program? Did that change at various points in the program? Joe: In order to faciliate the student interviews (grade 5 students remember!) we used a work scatter activity. (an equal number of positive and negative words that students were asked to circle and then explain. Teacher interviews were semi-structured.Joe: In order to faciliate the student interviews (grade 5 students remember!) we used a work scatter activity. (an equal number of positive and negative words that students were asked to circle and then explain. Teacher interviews were semi-structured.

    Slide 12:Data Analysis

    Survey data were analyzed using SPSS software to determine frequencies and percentages for pre- and post-intensive semester surveys - overall, program (IF, IE), and by sex Interview data from students included frequencies of word scatter responses as well as transcriptions of responses. Interview data from teachers involved transcriptions of responses. Qualitative data were analyzed using attitudes, confidence, and willingness to communicate as guiding themes. Joe We will now move on to the results of this analysis.Joe We will now move on to the results of this analysis.

    Slide 13:RESULTS

    ATTITUDES … Joe hands off to PaulaJoe hands off to Paula

    Slide 14:Survey Results (Attitudes) Q4 I really enjoy learning French/ English

    Paula Nearly 3/4 of the students coming into Intensive French and English indicated that they enjoyed learning their second language. A slightly higher percentage of students indicated they enjoyed learning their second language after finishing the intensive language semester. This positive attitude toward language learning was also seen for similar questions. (next slide) Paula Nearly 3/4 of the students coming into Intensive French and English indicated that they enjoyed learning their second language. A slightly higher percentage of students indicated they enjoyed learning their second language after finishing the intensive language semester. This positive attitude toward language learning was also seen for similar questions. (next slide)

    Slide 15:Q7 I find my French/English course to be interesting and enjoyable

    Paula - Same comment Now we will look at gender differences related to attitudePaula - Same comment Now we will look at gender differences related to attitude

    Slide 16:Q8 My French/English course provides good opportunities for me to speak …

    Paula: In this slide we see that boys increased from 69-74%; Girls stayed about same but were consistently higher than boys (14%higher on pre-test; and 8% on post-test.Paula: In this slide we see that boys increased from 69-74%; Girls stayed about same but were consistently higher than boys (14%higher on pre-test; and 8% on post-test.

    Slide 17:Q11 I will continue to learn French/English all my life.

    Paula: This question has little discrepancy pre- post but a much higher %age of girls express desire to continue learning the SL. (18% more on pre-test and post-test). We will now look at some interview data relating to attitudes… Paula: This question has little discrepancy pre- post but a much higher %age of girls express desire to continue learning the SL. (18% more on pre-test and post-test). We will now look at some interview data relating to attitudes…

    Slide 18:Interview Results (Attitudes)

    Students Comments: “(be) cause years before we had just one French class and I really liked French and I thought I’d be pretty good at it and I’d learn more as it went along”(Female Student B, School C, IF) “Because French is my favorite subject so I really liked being in it.” (Male Student A, School C, IF) Teacher Comment: “Many of them were enthusiastic about learning the language… a lot of them were open and willing… they were really up and open to learning” (School B- IF) PaulaPaula

    Slide 19:Interview Results (Attitudes)

    Student comments: “I was excited to learn French and I was excited to go into a new class learning a different subject… I felt that I was ready to go into French class and that I would sit and listen and learn French and then I could speak it.” (Female Student A, School D- IF) Paula This student quote exemplifies a positive attitude toward SL learning before the intensive experience.Paula This student quote exemplifies a positive attitude toward SL learning before the intensive experience.

    Slide 20: Anxiety Paula: Not all students expressed positive feelings however - a number mentioned that they were nervous or unsure. Anxiety was another factor examined in both the survey and interviewPaula: Not all students expressed positive feelings however - a number mentioned that they were nervous or unsure. Anxiety was another factor examined in both the survey and interview

    Slide 21:Survey Results (Anxiety) Q12- It embarrasses me to volunteer answers in my French/ English class

    Paula Generally students were not very embarrased about speaking French; with regard to embarassment there were not major no gender differencesPaula Generally students were not very embarrased about speaking French; with regard to embarassment there were not major no gender differences

    Slide 22:Q14- I feel that other students speak French/English better than I do.

    Paula Interms of how they compared with their peers, three distinct groups emerge- those that believe that others speak the L2 better than they do, those that consider themselves in the middle, and those feel they are at least as good as their peers.Paula Interms of how they compared with their peers, three distinct groups emerge- those that believe that others speak the L2 better than they do, those that consider themselves in the middle, and those feel they are at least as good as their peers.

    Slide 23:Q14-I feel that other students speak French/English better than I do.

    Paula Gender difference were noted on this anxiety related question On the pretest boys were more likely than girls to think that other students spoke the L2 better than they did (11.5% more boys). On the post-test 15% more boys than girls felt this way. 1 in 3 boys moderately or strongly agreed with this statement whereas only 1 in 5 girls did.Paula Gender difference were noted on this anxiety related question On the pretest boys were more likely than girls to think that other students spoke the L2 better than they did (11.5% more boys). On the post-test 15% more boys than girls felt this way. 1 in 3 boys moderately or strongly agreed with this statement whereas only 1 in 5 girls did.

    Slide 24:Interview Results (Anxiety)

    Student Comments : “I felt worried… because some people have learned a little French, but I wasn’t positive that I could actually speak French… I wasn’t good at French and none of my family was. I wasn’t sure if it was correct or if the words were spelt right… I didn’t exactly speak French at all, so I got nervous with how I was going to deal with that.” (Male Student A, School A-IF). “…I was unsure when I first made the decision to go into the program, but now I am happy I decided to do it.” (Female Student B, School G-IF) Paula Comments from the interviews show feelings of anxiety, particularly in the initial stages of the intensive experience.Paula Comments from the interviews show feelings of anxiety, particularly in the initial stages of the intensive experience.

    Slide 25:Interview Results (Anxiety toward confidence)

    “ In the first weeks, I felt nervous because it was English that I’ve never done… I was a bit shy in front of people… I am less nervous now because I am able to speak English, but the nervousness lasted for the first months of English. After I felt more able… I had confidence in myself… I am no longer nervous.” (translation- Female Student C- School B- IE) This student’s comments refer to their initial anxiety and to the reduction in anxiety seen at the end of the experience. The following slide contains a teacher’s comment reflecting the same change.This student’s comments refer to their initial anxiety and to the reduction in anxiety seen at the end of the experience. The following slide contains a teacher’s comment reflecting the same change.

    Slide 26:Interview Results (Anxiety toward confidence)

    Teacher comments : Pre-intensive: “Petrified- very insecure. The look on their faces was like, ‘What do I have to do? What is she saying?’ I remember first speaking and remember them looking at me and saying to each other ‘Qu’est-ce qu’elle a dit?’ [What did she say?]” Post-intensive: “Now if I say something they don’t understand, they know I won’t leave them hanging. There is a trust level now… They are very independent.” (Teacher, School B- IE) Paula This teacher’s comments refer to the student’s initial anxiety and to the reduction in anxiety seen at the end of the experience. This reduced anxiety is directly related to the next theme … perceived confidence.Paula This teacher’s comments refer to the student’s initial anxiety and to the reduction in anxiety seen at the end of the experience. This reduced anxiety is directly related to the next theme … perceived confidence.

    Slide 27:RESULTS

    PERCEIVED CONFIDENCE… Paula hands over to Joe who will talk about confidence.Paula hands over to Joe who will talk about confidence.

    Slide 28:Survey Results Q13 I feel confident in my ability to speak French in front of a group.

    Joe In this first slide, we see that learners reported a certain level of confidence (about 1/2 indicated they felt very or extremely confident) even before entering the program although the confidence levels increased considerably post intensive semester with 60% reporting feeling very or extremely confident in their ability to speak in front of a group. Joe In this first slide, we see that learners reported a certain level of confidence (about 1/2 indicated they felt very or extremely confident) even before entering the program although the confidence levels increased considerably post intensive semester with 60% reporting feeling very or extremely confident in their ability to speak in front of a group.

    Slide 29:Q13 I feel confident in my ability to speak French in front of a group.

    Joe: Bigger gain for girls than boys (8% for girls and 4% for boys). Girls have higher perceived confidence both pre and post, but boys also make gains here.Joe: Bigger gain for girls than boys (8% for girls and 4% for boys). Girls have higher perceived confidence both pre and post, but boys also make gains here.

    Slide 30:Q13 I feel confident in my ability to speak French/English in front of a group.

    Joe 7% more girls on pre-test and 11% more on post-test indicate confidence using their L2 in the classroom context. This is consistent with previous research on gender differences in L2. Joe 7% more girls on pre-test and 11% more on post-test indicate confidence using their L2 in the classroom context. This is consistent with previous research on gender differences in L2.

    Slide 31:Q15 I feel that I could get my message across if I had to.

    Joe Students reveal a greater degree of uncertainty about their ability to communicate a message prior to the intensive language semester, and an increase in their confidence post intensive with about 60% indicating they felt very or extremely confident. The most interesting result is the extremely confident one which increased from about 22% to 33%. Joe Students reveal a greater degree of uncertainty about their ability to communicate a message prior to the intensive language semester, and an increase in their confidence post intensive with about 60% indicating they felt very or extremely confident. The most interesting result is the extremely confident one which increased from about 22% to 33%.

    Slide 32:Q22 Overall I would say that I am... confident in my ability to speak French/English

    Joe Here we see about a 10% increase in students who feel very confident about their ability to speak the other language after their intensive semester experience. . Interview data support this notion of increased confidence after the program, but also reveal a greater lack of confidence pre-intensive than the quantitative data suggest. Joe Here we see about a 10% increase in students who feel very confident about their ability to speak the other language after their intensive semester experience. . Interview data support this notion of increased confidence after the program, but also reveal a greater lack of confidence pre-intensive than the quantitative data suggest.

    Slide 33:Q22 Overall I would say that I am... confident in my ability to speak French/English

    Joe A larger increase (+10%) for girls expressing that they are very confident in their ability to speak the SL. Boys also made gains but remain similar to where girls perceived confidence prior to the intensive progam experience.Joe A larger increase (+10%) for girls expressing that they are very confident in their ability to speak the SL. Boys also made gains but remain similar to where girls perceived confidence prior to the intensive progam experience.

    Slide 34:Interview Results (Perceived confidence)

    Student Comments: “I am proud of what I accomplished in this class, and I feel that I have done well. I am confident in my French ability and my ability to speak French and talk to other people” (Female Student A, School D- IF) Joe On the word scatter activity a much higher percentage of students chose the word “confident” to describe how they felt after the intensive semester than at the beginning. The following comments illustrate students newly acquired confidence.Joe On the word scatter activity a much higher percentage of students chose the word “confident” to describe how they felt after the intensive semester than at the beginning. The following comments illustrate students newly acquired confidence.

    Slide 35:Interview Results (Perceived confidence)

    Student Comments : “I am confident about what we are doing cause I am catching up. I used to be at the bottom of the hill in November and they were half-way up the hill. And now I am half-way up the hill.” (Male Student B, School B, IF) Joe This comment also shows the growth in confidence.Joe This comment also shows the growth in confidence.

    Slide 36:Interview Results (Teacher Perceptions- confidence & anxiety)

    Teacher Comments: “… a lot of kids come in with a lack of confidence... They think that they are not capable of learning French so they come in afraid to speak in front of the class and are afraid to participate, but that improves very quickly… Thanksgiving [mid-October] is kind of the point where it turns around for a lot of people… and all of a sudden they think, ‘Oh I can do this’ and then they are fine.” (Teacher, School E- IF) Joe As seen in the literature, degree of confidence relates to willingness to communicate. The goal of the intensive semester is not only to build confidence, but also to build the learners’ proficiency so they would (and will) use the language in their daily life. The next theme, willingness to communicate (WTC), addresses students’ perceptions of their ability to use the language and their actual experiences with the language. Joe As seen in the literature, degree of confidence relates to willingness to communicate. The goal of the intensive semester is not only to build confidence, but also to build the learners’ proficiency so they would (and will) use the language in their daily life. The next theme, willingness to communicate (WTC), addresses students’ perceptions of their ability to use the language and their actual experiences with the language.

    Slide 37: WILLINGNESS TO COMMUNICATE (WTC) … Joe hands off to PaulaJoe hands off to Paula

    Slide 38:Q21 If there were French/English speaking families in my neighbourhood I would speak to them …

    Paula: This first graph shows that most students would be willing to communicate in their second language if they encountered families who spoke the second language in their community. Although most felt they would do this sometimes even before the intensive semester, there was a 10% increase in those who would use the 2nd language as much as possible if faced with this situation. Paula: This first graph shows that most students would be willing to communicate in their second language if they encountered families who spoke the second language in their community. Although most felt they would do this sometimes even before the intensive semester, there was a 10% increase in those who would use the 2nd language as much as possible if faced with this situation.

    Slide 39:Q18 When I have a chance to speak French/English outside of school I speak…

    Paula: Here again we see a positive shift upward with 10% more indicating they would be willing to speak French or English most of the time when they have the chance.Paula: Here again we see a positive shift upward with 10% more indicating they would be willing to speak French or English most of the time when they have the chance.

    Slide 40:Q18 When I have a chance to speak French/English outside of school I speak it …

    Paula With respect to gender differences, girls dropped from 20% to about 15% for the never category. Although boys remained constant at 30% in the never category, boys made much bigger gains though moving from « occasionally » to « mostly - even surpassing girls. Here we see ore polarization among boys after the intensive experience.Paula With respect to gender differences, girls dropped from 20% to about 15% for the never category. Although boys remained constant at 30% in the never category, boys made much bigger gains though moving from « occasionally » to « mostly - even surpassing girls. Here we see ore polarization among boys after the intensive experience.

    Slide 41:Interview Results (WTC)

    Student Comments: “At the first of the year, I tried to understand. I was only understanding yes and no- little words. But now I can understand sentences… My parents are very proud of that. My Aunt is English, and she lives in Florida and I can talk to her]. ” (translation, Female Student C, School B- IE) Paula Interview comments by students and teachers support these findings regarding increased willingness to communicate. This student in intensive English for example said …Paula Interview comments by students and teachers support these findings regarding increased willingness to communicate. This student in intensive English for example said …

    Slide 42:Interview Results (WTC)

    Student Comments: “I was interested in getting bilingual and learning more about French. So like I play hockey and I play [competitive] hockey and sometimes we go to Shediac so I can talk to the refs and say “time out” and all that and say like ‘that was a goal, that wasn’t a goal.’ and all of that. Most of the time we go to Moncton and there’s a lot of French people there so I can talk to them in French… ‘cause I was proud I went in it, and I have a friend in Moncton, he’s in French now and I went to a Moncton tournament and he was there and I was speaking to him in French and he asked me a whole bunch of questions in French and I answered in French.” (Male Student C, School G- IF) Paula (PLAY SOUND CLIP) This IF student talks about a most Canadian of past times - ice hockey - and how it is a venue not only for his athletic skills but his SL skills.Paula (PLAY SOUND CLIP) This IF student talks about a most Canadian of past times - ice hockey - and how it is a venue not only for his athletic skills but his SL skills.

    Slide 43:WTC - Interview Results

    Teacher Comments: “From reports I have gotten from the French immersion teacher and the Principal they do talk French to them and outside the class or school…one of the French immersion teachers… said that when they see her in the hallway they will stop and talk to her. She noted how much they have been improving since she was supply teaching for them until now. They always talk to her in French. The Principal often speaks to them in French and they reply.” (Teacher, School G- IF) This teacher comments on how the intensive experience increases in willingness to communicate in the school contributing to a more bilingual environment.This teacher comments on how the intensive experience increases in willingness to communicate in the school contributing to a more bilingual environment.

    Slide 44:Discussion and Conclusion

    Although some learners are anxious about beginning an intensive language semester, they are coming in with very positive attitudes about learning the other official language. There was not a lot of room for growth in terms of attitudes, however the intensive semester was able to maintain and often enhance these positive attitudes. There were clear increases in the degree of perceived confidence expressed by students and increases in their expressed WTC (consistent with MacIntyre’s findings) These increases in confidence and WTC may be seen as indicators of an increase in proficiency. The teachers’ perceptions of learner competence and how they communicate these perceptions to the learners may affect learners’ perceived self-confidence (consistent with Noels, Clément, Pelletier, 1999) JoeJoe

    Slide 45:Discussion and Conclusion

    Gender differences: Difference between boys and girls are consistent with previous findings (girls generally higher motivation, more confidence, and greater WTC, cf MacIntyre et all 2002). Most striking gender difference relates to desire to engage in life-long study the SL (18% more girls) Some related issues: Societal perception of appropriacy (Kissau, 2006) Differential teacher treatment (Worral and Tsarna, 1987 cited in MacIntyre, 2002) found favouring of girls in SL classroom. JoeJoe

    Slide 46:Implications and timeliness of the study

    Intensive French (IF): The provincial government recognizes success of IF and its potential to help achieve the goals of “Plan 2013” (70% bilingual grads) The provincial government has endorsed IF at Grade 5 as a component of the regular Core French program The value of Core French at Grade 1 to 4 is being questioned and the program may be made optional for schools that choose IF. Present study indicates that students enter IF from Core French with positive attitudes and motivation toward learning French and that IF enhances these attitudes, builds confidence and increases language use. Whether the IF would be as successful in NB without core French is not known. PaulaPaula

    Slide 47:Implications and Timeliness of the study

    Intensive English (IE): Francophone regions are trying to meet “2013” targets without compromising French language and culture. The IE program, modeled on IF in NB and IE in Quebec, is currently being piloted in francophone majority areas of the province. Ironically, while the Anglophone sector is considering making core French optional from K-4, the Francophone sector is planning to implement Core English from K to 2 in French majority areas (previously began in Grade 3) The positive attitudes and motivation seen in core French may contribute to the decision-making process on the implementation of core English. Paula These findings on attitudes, motivation, confidence and language use should be of particular interest to decision makers in NB and potentially in other jurisdictions where intensive language experiences are being considered.Paula These findings on attitudes, motivation, confidence and language use should be of particular interest to decision makers in NB and potentially in other jurisdictions where intensive language experiences are being considered.

    Slide 48:Future Directions

    Follow-up (delayed survey) with Grade 9 classes that contain some percentage of Intensive French students to determine any longer term effects on attitudes and motivation. Oral proficiency testing of same students at Grade 10 (comparison of IF cohort with Core French and late and early immersion students) PaulaPaula

    Slide 49:The End

    Questions? Comments?

    Slide 50:References

    Dornyei, Z. (2003). Attitudes, orientations, and motivations in language learning: Advances in theory research, and applications. Language and Linguistics, 53 (S1), 3-32. Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. Edward Arnold. Gardner, R. C. (1985). The Attitude and Motivation Test Battery: Technical Report. University of Western Ontario. Gardner, R.C., Smythe, P.C., Clément, R., Glicksman, L. (1976). Social and Psychological Factors in Second Language Acquisition. Canadian Modern Language Review, 32 (3), 198-213. Gardner, R.C. & Lambert, W. (1972). Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language in Second Language Learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers. Graham, S (2004). Giving up on modern foreign languages? Students’ perceptions of learning French. Modern Language Journal, 88 (22), 171-191. Kristmanson, P. (2006). Beyond time on task in second language teaching and learning: A case study of cognitive processing in Intensive French. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of New Brunswick. MacFarlane, A., Peters, M., Wesche, M. (2004). Le régime pédagogiqe du français intensif à Ottawa: le bain linguistique. Canadian Modern Language Review, 60 (3), 373-392.

    Slide 51:References

    MacFarlane, A. (2005). An Examination of Intensive French: A Pedagogical Strategy for the Improvement of French as a Second Language. Ottawa: CASLT. MacIntyre,P., Clément, R., Dornyei, Z., and Noels, K. (1998) Conceptualizing Willingness to Communicate in a L2: A Situated Model of Confidence and Affiliation. Modern Language Journal, 82, 545-56. MacIntyre, P., Baker, S., Clément, R., Donovan,L. (2002) Sex and Age Effects on Willingness to Communicate, Anxiety, Perceived Competence, and L2 Motivation Among Junior High School French Immersion Students. Language Learning, 52 (3), 537-564. Netten, J. & Germain, C. (2002). L'Apprentissage Intensif du Français: Rapport Final. Ottawa, ON: Department of Canadian Heritage. Noels, K., Clément, R. & Pelletier, L. (1999). Perceptions of Teachers’ Communicative Style and Students’ Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. Modern Language Journal, 83 (1), 23-34. Noels, K., Pelletier, L., Clément, R., Vallerand, R. Why Are You Learning a Second Language? Motivational Orientations and Self-Determination Theory. Language Learning 53 (S1), 33-64. Vandergrift, L. (2005). Relationships among motivation orientation, metacognitive awareness and proficiency in L2 listening. Applied Linguistics, 26 (1), 70-89.

    Circle any words that describe how you felt at the beginning of the program? Can you talk about this a bit? Circle any words that describe how you felt at the end of program? Can you talk about this a bit? Can you talk about why there is a difference between the two? Bored Proud Frustrated Happy Excited Uninterested Sad Ready Relaxed Confident Worried Angry Confused Positive Unsure Interested Nervous Scared Word Scatter Activity - Interview