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Bulgaria – the Unknown Challenge. Angelina Ivanova IIZ/DVV Sofia, Bulgaria. IIZ / DVV Sofia Office, Bulgaria. Project office established in 2000; the office is a

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Bulgaria – the Unknown Challenge

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    1. Bulgaria – the Unknown Challenge Angelina Ivanova IIZ/DVV Sofia, Bulgaria

    2. IIZ / DVV Sofia Office, Bulgaria • Project office established in 2000; the office is a SEE regional office (Serbia&Montenegro, Macedonia, Albania, Romania, Bosnia&Herzegowina, Kosovo, Croatia and Slovenia) – since 2003 • Project manager: Johann Theessen – 2000-2003; SEE Regional director - since 2004 Project manager of the IIZ/DVV Sofia Office: Maria Todorova – since 2004 • Partners: Ministry of Education and Science, Ministry of Labour and Social Policy, the Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the German – Bulgarian Chamber of Industry, the Foundation “Tschitalischta”, the Confederation of the Independent Trade Unions, the Znanie Association, the Association of the German Teachers, Bulgarian adult education organisations, vocational training centers, universities, schools, municipalities, foundations, NGOs

    3. IIZ/DVV Sofia Office - Activities • Offers in the field of general and vocational adult education; lobbying for the adult education in Bulgaria • Implementation of the European certification standards for computer literacy and foreign language skills • Consulting and support of adult education organizations • Support of passing of laws on adult education and lifelong learning • Educational offers for marginalized population groups – the unemployed, minorities and disabled people

    4. IIZ/DVV Sofia - Projects Regional Projects • The SMILE - Project – Exchange and dissemination of multi ethnical and intercultural learning experiences • The History Project – Innovative teaching methods, teacher training, reconciliation and human rights in SEE countries • Xpert – Computer Passport – Computer literacy and certificates • Xpert – Personal Business Skills – Key competences that are of use to companies, public administration and NGOs • TELC – The European Language Certificate – Certification of foreign language skills according the European frame for the languages

    5. IIZ/DVV Sofia - Projects Projects in Bulgaria • The Second Chance School – Alphabetization and educational courses for Roma in Plovdiv and Sofia • The Project “Social Inclusion” 01.2004 – 07.2004 Alphabetization courses for Roma in 6 Bulgarian schools; 150 course participants • The TUM – Project – Exchange of learning experiences about the following issues - tolerance, understanding, dialogue, innovative methods in the adult education and intercultural learning • Master program in adult education at the New Bulgarian University Sofia • Vocational training in Bulgaria

    6. IIZ/DVV Sofia – Contact addresses IIZ / DVV Project Office 147 Knjaz Boris I Street 1000 Sofia BULGARIA Phone: 00359 2 983 6543 Fax: 00359 2 983 6482 E-mail: info@iizdvv-bg.org Web: www.iizdvv-bg.org

    7. Bulgaria – Geography Facts • Bulgaria is situated in the southeast part of Europe, in the east part of the Balkans • Territory: 111 000 sq km • Population: 7.8 Million (statistics in 2003) • Minorities: Turks 650 000 Pomacs 250 000 Roma 600 000 – 750 000 • State form: Parliamentarian republic • Capital: Sofia • Official language: Bulgarian • Alphabet: Cyrillic

    8. The Seven Rila Lakes

    9. The Nature of Bulgaria • Climate – gentle continental climate, transitional climate • Landscape: 1/3 of the territory is covered by mountains (total 16 mountains) Big mountains in Bulgaria – Rila, Pirin (with alpine nature), the Rhodops, the Balkan • Mussala 2 925 m – the highest peak • Length of the coast - 378 km • 3 national parks, 9 reserves • Water sources: 1200 rivers, 400 lakes (there are over 330 lakes in the high mountains) • Over 600 natural mineral sources

    10. The Natural Wonders of Bulgaria Unique natural wonders with variety of forms: rock formations (bridges, karst gorges, rock pyramids), a world of caves (over 2000), canyons, majestic waterfalls

    11. Culture and Traditions are still alive • Traditions are an important part of the modern life in Bulgaria • Practiced handicrafts – copper craft, wood carving • Many folklore festivals of authentic Bulgarian dances and music • 20 000 cultural monuments – Thracian tombs and cult places from the 4th, 5th century B. C., medieval fortresses, 162 monasteries, medieval rock monasteries, 330 museums and galleries, ethnographical and historical reserves • 7 Bulgarian cultural monuments in the Unesco list – the Bojana church, the Rila monastery, the monastery in Ivanovo, 2 Thracian tombs, the Madara rider, the town of Nessebar

    12. The Bulgarians – heirs of the Thracians, Slavs and the Great Bulgarians • The Thracian civilization (5th century B.C.) – the oldest of these territories • The heritage of the Thracians – tombs and golden treasures, which are evidence for their high developed civilization • The Slavs came in the 6th century. • The Great Bulgarians (nomads from middle Asia) seized the territories of the today’s North Bulgaria in the 7th century • 681 – establishment of the Bulgarian state by Khan Asparouh

    13. The History of Bulgaria • 864 – the Christianity became an official religion; independence of the church • 855 – the brothers Cyril and Methodius created the Slavonic alphabet • 866 – the students of Cyril and Methodius found a protection in Bulgaria – establishment of the Slavonic – Bulgarian alphabet and script • 7th – 14th century – First and Second Bulgarian Kingdom – cultural bloom, economic and political growth (own coins); Bulgaria belonged to the most influential states in medieval Europe, 3 sea borders • 14th – 19th century – Bulgaria is a part of the Ottoman Empire – a standstill of the political, economic and cultural development of Bulgaria; aggressive policy of Islamisation against the Bulgarian nation

    14. The History of Bulgaria • 1762 – 1878 – the Bulgarian Renaissance – liberation movements, an independent Bulgarian church, a bloom of the culture and monasteries • 1878 – liberation of Bulgaria from the Ottoman slavery by the Russian troops • 1878 – 1944 – Bulgaria is a constitutional monarchy with a parliament; a partition of the country by the congress in Berlin; 1885 – the reunification of Bulgaria; the Balkan wars – an attempt to solve the problem with Macedonia and Thracia • Until 1912 – the “Bulgarian Economic Wonder” –construction of factories, establishment of vocational schools and universities, banks and insurance companies, extension of the economic infrastructure, inclusion of Bulgaria in Europe, ethnical tolerance • 1941 – the joining of Bulgaria to the Triple Coalition; rescuing of the Bulgarian Jews • 08th September 1944 – the Occupation of Bulgaria by the Red Army

    15. The Communist Regime and the Transition Period • 15th September 1946 – Bulgaria became a people‘s republic • 1944 – 1989 – Bulgaria in the socialistic period – the state and the party are merged, overpowering of the opposition parties; copying of the Russian economic model, nationalizing of the industry, expropriation of the land • 10th November 1989 – the gentle revolution • Until 1997 – instability, the first economic reforms • 1997 - an economic and political stability; establishment of the currency board • 2001 –2005 - the last king of Bulgaria Simeon the Second became a prime minister

    16. The History of Bulgaria in Pictures

    17. The Development in the Last Three YearsPolitical Situation and Living Conditions • Bulgaria is a parliamentarian republic (one chamber system). • The President – Georgi Parvanov (the president is elected every 5 years) • The Prime Minister – Sergei Stanischev • One chamber parliament with 240 members who are elected every 4 years • The government after the elections in June 2005: a coalition of the BSP (Bulgarian Socialistic Party), the NMSS (National Movement Simeon the Second) and the MRF (Movement for Rights and Freedom) • Employment rates Total number of employed Bulgarians in 2004: 2 922 200– 43.7% (53% men and 47% women) – 2/3 of Bulgarians are employed in the private sector • Unemploymentrates in 2004 – 399800 Bulgarians – 12% (55% men and 45% women)

    18. Living Conditions in Bulgaria • Decrease of the unemployment rates compared to 2003 (449 100 – 13.7%) • Forecasts – Unemployment decrease until 2010 - 10% • Average gross monthly salary in 2004 – 154 Euro (private sector - 136 Euro) • Minimum monthly salary: 82 Euro - 2006 • Expenses of a family in 2004 – 39.3% for food; 13.8% for house expenses, water, electricity • 57.2 % of the families use mobile phones, 9.6% internet and 14.6% of them have a computer at home (Most of the Bulgarians use computer and internet in the office!) * Survey period: January – March 2004 • Total savings of the population in the banks in 2003 – 3.4 Billions Euro (12.6% increase compared to 2002) • Consumer bank credits (Percentage from the all credits) – 2001 – 20.8%, 2002 – 20.04%, 2003 – 23.58%

    19. The Bulgarian System of Education • Kindergarten – 3 - 6/7 aged children ( 1 year pre-school in the kindergarten) • Primary school – 1th-4th class and 5th-8th class (obligatory) • Secondary school – 8th – 12th class General education schools; Language schools and specialized schools (art, sport, mathematic and other) – only with entrance examinations Vocational schools (i.e. technical schools) School graduation examinations – Bulgarian and literature + 1 other subject; for the vocational schools – examination on a profession • College – 3 years – after college graduation – a qualification “Specialist” • University (with entrance examinations) – 4 years – Bachelor; 5 years – Master; 3 years after the Master degree – PHD • University graduation – state examinations or a master thesis

    20. The Education – A Priority in the Life of the Bulgarians • The education is a priority in the life of the Bulgarians, it is considered an investment that ensures a future prosperity. • A big number of well educated Bulgarians – a precondition for an economic and social growth • A high quality of human resources – 71.4% of the Bulgarians aged 25 – 64 have a secondary or university education • 2003 – 43 300 Bulgarians graduated an university

    21. Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning • Minorities’ educational level Turks – 2.7% UND, 23.7% SSD, 53% PSD, 3.5% Illiterates – statistics in 2001; Illiterates in 1946 – 77.2% Roma – 7.2% UND and SSD, 44.9% PSD, 27.4% (1th - 4th class), 7.8% - no school graduation (25-64 aged), 12.7% Illiterates Causes: Unemployment, the education does not play an important role in the value system of the Roma Measures: A strategy of the government for the integration of the children from the minorities, alphabetization programmes • Continuing education in Bulgaria 22.2% of the employed and 11.2% of the unemployed people were involved in continuing education programmes (formal, non-formal continuing education and personal development) – 2nd quarter 2002 – 2nd quarter 2003 Causes: lack of HR investments in the BG companies, financial reasons, lack of adequate educational programmes in the labour offices

    22. Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning

    23. Foreign Languages and Computer Literacy – An Important Part of the Professional Profile

    24. The Economic Development of Bulgaria • Investment sectors in 2004 – Energy, gas industry, water sources, telecommunications, trade, financial services, real estates • Investments sectors of the German companies – consulting, electrical engineering and machinery construction, cosmetics, building and architecture, tourism industry, food industry • German direct investments in 2004 – 208.85 Mill EUR • Top 4 of the foreign investors in 2004 – Austria 37%, Czech Republic 15%, Holland 14%, Germany 10% - percentage from all investments

    25. The Tourist Industry – the Future of Bulgaria • The mass tourism is still more popular than the alternative tourism • The German tour operators like C&N, ITS renovate the hotels at the Black Sea coast or build new hotels – 10.6 Mill. USD – C&N – resort “Zlatni Pjassazi” (a system “investments for services”) • The alternative tourism is gradually getting more popular but it is not supported by the state • The EU - Phare programme – infrastructure building, training and PR • Forms: trekking, canyoning, rafting, bicycle tours, culture, wine, ride tours, cave tours, bird watching, rural tourism • Preconditions: unique nature, countless historical monuments, traditions, unique cuisine and hospitality

    26. Pictures from Bulgaria

    27. 2005 – Measures and Facts 10% Unemployment Q2/2005 – 2% decrease compared to Q2/2004 5% increase of the populations incomes Family taxes– decrease of the year tax base of one of the partners – 184 Euro (1 child), 399 Euro (2 children), 583 Euro (3 and more children) 87.3% of Bulgarian companies are in a good or satisfactory economic condition Privatization sectors in 2005: telecommunications, metal industry, military industry, oil industry, transport What remains: 10 water electric plants, the tobacco company, sea transport companies etc. (the most companies are already private property) October 2005 – BTK has the license for mobile communication services 2006 – Measures and Facts 5.5 % economic growth Minimum monthly income which is not taxed - 92 Euro 6% decrease of the social insurance base – 300 Mill. Euro free financial resources in the private sector Programmes for qualification, continuing education for 24 000 persons Employment programmes for 70 000 persons 10% reduction in the state institutions 972 Mill. Euro are planed for the education (4.2% of the GDP) 12% export growth Excise duty increase (fuel, cigarettes, alcohol) 2006 – Decision and Perspectives

    28. The Access to the EU– “The Great Expectations”

    29. Activities of the Government 2006 Support of the employment, social activities -189 Mill. Euro Ecology – 370 Mill. Euro Infrastructure projects – 551 Mill. Euro Support of the competitiveness of the companies – innovation projects and improvement of the quality of the services for the business Reduced participation of the state in heating companies and other state companies – higher level of the competitiveness, free market conditions, better quality and convenient prices of the services Increase of the effectiveness of the law system - 168 Mill. Euro The Reality Only 10% of the Bulgarian companies are prepared for the access to the EU Only 18% of the companies have calculated their costs for the adaptation to the EU standards There is still a strong state support of the companies – i.e. for the railway company (38 Mill. Euro in 2006) The ecology standards – the most difficult task for the Bulgarian economy Until 2014 the Bulgarian companies should invest 45 Mill. Euro per year in the ecology . The unemployment rates are still high, a slow raise of the living standard The Access to the EU – Hopes and Reality

    30. Bulgaria – a Member of the EU Why ? Political reasons Bulgaria exemplifies ethnical tolerance and political stability on the Balkans Good relationship with the neighbour countries, active support of the stability and the tolerance in the region Economic reasons Very good investment conditions and active support of the state Sectors without foreign investments (i.e. automobile industry) The alternative tourism – the undiscovered territory Highly qualified, flexible and motivated labour

    31. About the country www.bulgariatravel.org (EN) www.discoverbulgaria.com (EN) www.bgglobe.net (EN) www.perperikon.bg (EN) www.etar.hit.bg (EN, DE) www.go.to/bgmountains (EN) www.bulgarianmonastery.com (EN) www.unesco-objects.hit.bg (EN) www.melnikwine.bg (EN) www.picturesofbulgaria.com (EN) Holiday in Bulgaria www.beachbulgaria.com (EN) www.bulgariaski.com(EN) www.rodopi-bg.com(EN) www.rilanationalpark.org (EN) www.ruralbulgaria.com (EN) www.leshten.hit.bg (EN) www.bulgaria-hotel.net (EN) www.bulgarien-reise.de www.pirin-np.com (EN) Information for Tourists

    32. www.president.bg www.government.bg www.mi.government.bg www.evropa.bg www.nacid.nat.bg www.bnb.bg www.bfia.org www.bcci.bg www.nsi.bg www.btch.org www.bse-sofia.bg www.ahk-bg.org www.uni-vt.bg/2/ndefault.asp www.uni-sofia.bg www.hrdc.bg www.novinite.com http://news.dnevnik.bg http://www.capital.bg/weekly www.econ.bg www.lex.bg www.aresearch.org www.digsys.bg/ngo www.women-bg.org www.sofia.bg Information for Business Partners

    33. Visiting Bulgaria… experiencing the incredible nature and getting to know people and culture